NERGY SECUR1TY-ENDEAVORS AND IMPEDIMENTS

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NERGY SECUR1TY-ENDEAVORS AND IMPEDIMENTS

According to the U.S. government’s Energy Information Agency, “In 2009, India was the fourth largest energy consumer in the world, after the United States, China, and Russia. Despite a slowing global economy.

India’s energy demand continues to rise. As. • vehicle ownership expands, petroleum demand in the transport sector is expected to grow in the coming years. While India’s domes_ , tic energy resource base is substantial, the country relies on imports for a considerable amount of its energy use. According to the I, International Energy Agency, hydrocarbons account for the majority of India’s energy use.”
The Good News : According to the EIA, in 2011 India had approximately 5.7 billion barrels of proven oil reserves, the second_ largest amount in the Asia-Pacific region after China, primarily light and sweet crude. In 2010 India produced roughly 750,000 barrels per day crude oil.
The Bad NOVJS In 2010 India consumed 3.2 million bpd, and imports are rising, the cost of which represents a growing strain on India’s Treasury. In 2010 India was the world’s fifth largest net importer of oil, importing than 2.2 million bpd, roughly 70 per cent of its indigenous consumption, primarily from the Middle East, with Saudi Arabia and Iran supplying the largest shares.
Accordingly, Indian crude oil imports energy bill for 2011=12 now stands at $150 billion, of $475 billion, producing a trade deficit of $175 billion, with oil imports now comprising a massive 85 per cent of India’s total trade deficit.
It is in this austere context then, that the rapturous reports of recent oil finds off India’s western coast must be judged.
On 11 August “The Economic Times,” India’s equivalent of “The Wall Street Journal,” trumpeted the headline, ‘ONGC makes huge oil discovery off West coast.” The newspaper announced to its readers, “ONGC today said it has made a huge oil discovery off the ,Atest coast that will help the state-owned firm raise its sagging oil output.
The new discovery was made in the currently producing D1 oilfield. The find ‘will catapult D1 to become the third largest field in western offshore after prolific Mumbai High and Heera,’ Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) said in a statement.”
Reality only reasserted itself in the third paragraph, where the journal informed its readers, D1, which is currently producing 12,500 barrels per day (bpd), had an approved peak output of 36,000 bpd. With the new discovery, the peak output would jump to 60,000 bpc1 or three million tons a year.” India currently imports roughly 362,000 barrels per day, of which — 60,000 bpd comes from Iran ;ind this underpins a lot of international relational dynamics of India at the current level. Since Iran has become the sole polarizing factor in the current uni polar world with many geopolitical faultlines converging at the same points whether that be;
Concerning Shia and Shunni muslims
Concerning shia majority Muslim Arab nation being ruled by Sunni minority elite
llamas rind Palestine
Israel and the acceptance of holocaust
`, US and Russia coupled with China
‘y        Saudi Arab, Bahrain, Kuwait type pro-US nations and others which are either pro Iran or at the most neutral; this has put
added pressure on India to play its cards tactically so that the nuclear collaboration from US and oil & gas trade from Iran continues.
So, when Di conies fully online by 2016-17, it will only replace India’s Iranian exports, which are already due to shrink under UN sanctions, which India has agreed to observe, netting New Delhi a zero-sum game.
India has long had an interest in D1 and the country’s offshore reserves, with the first well in D1-4 block drilled in the year 1976, 36 years ago, when its low gas-to-oil ratio (GOR) and the company’s poor understanding of its reservoir led to slow development of the field’s appraisal and exploration. ONGC said in a statement, “As a result, the first development scheme for the D1 field was confined only to the D1-4 block in which a total 12 wells were drilled in two phases. After completion of Phase-II, the field achieved a peak oil production of 17,500 barrels per day in the year 2009. Currently, D1 is producing on an average of 12,500 bpd.” ONGC accounted for 62 per cent of India’s crude oil and 49 per cent of its natural-gas output in the first quarter of 2012 which ended 30 March,
Will III output significantly lessen India’s energy import bills? The answer could be either ‘yes’ or ‘no’. But the safest way to play geopolitically in the present world a nation must avoid any sort of overt dependence on any context upon a region that has become and will become in the times to come volatile. After Syria may be there are chances of Saudi uprising against the minor Shunni Saud family ruling over the majority Shia people overtly fanned by neighbouring Iran.
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suppliers as it possibly can, and to try to neutralise its potential competitors, principally China, with cooperation agreements. To attain some amount of energy security, India has engaged itself in almost all regions in the world that are rich in oil and gas reserves, namely the Gulf, Central Asia, South America, Africa and even a few of the neighbours like Bangladesh and Myanmar.
The bilateral trade between India and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) reached about $100 billion in 2009 . Similarly, in 2008-09 India imported than 92 million metric tonnes (MMT) of crude from the Gulf region against the requirements of about 128 MMT. Given the absence of pipelines, these imports use the sea lanes to reach the Indian shores. However, the emerg­ing maritime security environment has made it imperative to protect the country’s Exclusive Economic Zone of about 2 million square km against at­tacks through the sea and enhance the country’s close relations with the Gulf.
The rising energy security needs set the pace for India to leave no stone unturned to pursue a hard diplomacy for a very, warm relationship with Central Asian states. As the Middle East appears to be in a state of permanent turmoil, attention of the world has certainlY shifted towards Central Asia. India has engaged Kazakhstan in the hydrocarbon , sector and civil nuclear energy. It is re­ally encouraging that about 170 projects have been launched by Kazakhstan seeking foreign investments including from the Indian companies.
 
tive step to improve its economic and diplomatic ties with Myanmar as a policy initiative must be praised. However, considering the rich deposits of natural gas in Myanmar, it needs to speed up its endeavours not only for the benefits of the two countries but also for paving the way towards a power link of the SAARC nations. But recent development in the wider domain of the South China Sea and the Mekong-Irrawaddy basin with an increasingly assertive China; India had to shelve off her plans to engage in that region for energy exploration. We will look after these issues as and when the whole thing gels up with the text at relevant part.

Now, we again revert to the IR

and FP of India vis-à-vis nations and institutions as per their geopolitical and strategic importance in the con­current text.
We start with Pakistan, after that we discuss US than China and so on.

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