NERGY SECUR1TY-ENDEAVORS AND IMPEDIMENTS
According to the U.S. government’s Energy Information Agency, “In 2009, India was the fourth largest energy consumer in the world, after the United States, China, and Russia. Despite a slowing global economy.
India’s energy demand continues to rise. As. • vehicle ownership expands, petroleum demand in the transport sector is expected to grow in the coming years. While India’s domes_ , tic energy resource base is substantial, the country relies on imports for a considerable amount of its energy use. According to the I, International Energy Agency, hydrocarbons account for the majority of India’s energy use.”
suppliers as it possibly can, and to try to neutralise its potential competitors, principally China, with cooperation agreements. To attain some amount of energy security, India has engaged itself in almost all regions in the world that are rich in oil and gas reserves, namely the Gulf, Central Asia, South America, Africa and even a few of the neighbours like Bangladesh and Myanmar.
The bilateral trade between India and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) reached about $100 billion in 2009 . Similarly, in 2008-09 India imported than 92 million metric tonnes (MMT) of crude from the Gulf region against the requirements of about 128 MMT. Given the absence of pipelines, these imports use the sea lanes to reach the Indian shores. However, the emerging maritime security environment has made it imperative to protect the country’s Exclusive Economic Zone of about 2 million square km against attacks through the sea and enhance the country’s close relations with the Gulf.
The rising energy security needs set the pace for India to leave no stone unturned to pursue a hard diplomacy for a very, warm relationship with Central Asian states. As the Middle East appears to be in a state of permanent turmoil, attention of the world has certainlY shifted towards Central Asia. India has engaged Kazakhstan in the hydrocarbon , sector and civil nuclear energy. It is really encouraging that about 170 projects have been launched by Kazakhstan seeking foreign investments including from the Indian companies.
tive step to improve its economic and diplomatic ties with Myanmar as a policy initiative must be praised. However, considering the rich deposits of natural gas in Myanmar, it needs to speed up its endeavours not only for the benefits of the two countries but also for paving the way towards a power link of the SAARC nations. But recent development in the wider domain of the South China Sea and the Mekong-Irrawaddy basin with an increasingly assertive China; India had to shelve off her plans to engage in that region for energy exploration. We will look after these issues as and when the whole thing gels up with the text at relevant part.
Now, we again revert to the IR
and FP of India vis-à-vis nations and institutions as per their geopolitical and strategic importance in the concurrent text.
We start with Pakistan, after that we discuss US than China and so on.