INDO-JAPAN : FAR EASTERN GEOPOLICIAL FRIENDS
Japan has assisted India in infrastructure development projects such as the Delhi Metro Rail Project.
Both sides are discussing the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project and Dedicated Freight Corridor Projects on the Mumbai-Delhi and the Delhi-Howrah routes
Capital – Tokyo
Official language- Japanese
Prime Minister – Yoshihiko :Coda
Area- 377,944 km
GDP (nominal)- $4.440 trillion
The year 2012 marks the 60th anniversary celebrations of establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. It is being celebrated by both embassies to mark the clearly discernible upswing in the relations among the two. India and Japan share a global vision of peace, stability and shared prosperity, based on sustainable development. Shared democratic values and commitment to human rights, pluralism, open society, and the rule of law underpin the global partnership between the two countries. A strong, prosperous and dynamic India is, in the interest of Japan and vice versa.
Historical Perspectivt Exchanges between India and Japan is said to have begun in the 6th century A.D., when Buddhism was introduced to Japan. Indian culture, filtered through Buddhism, has impacted on Japanese culture and thought, and this is the source of Japanese people’s sense of Korea other relation becomes mere theoretical. We discuss the same as per their significance for examination point of view.
Most of the nation’s relational dynamics we have endeavoured to deal within the parameter of a well worn out story which contains every aspect of whatever that is important. Since form here on wards we have to give things in concise form we have (as said earlier in the text) used some concepts like “perspective” of everything that is concurrent and gives new dimension to that nation’s
India-Japan Coast Guard Joint Exercise :
The joint exercise named “SahyogKaijin-Xl” by the Indian and Japan Coast Guard • ‘ ,vas conducted to jointly counter a range of maritime threats in the Asia-Pacific rec, . The lndo-Japan Coast Guard Joint Exercises, which alternates between India an,: japan every year. was organised off the Bay of Bengal. The drill that formed part of initiatives between the two Coast Guards framed out in a Memorandum of Understanding dating back to November 24, 2006, began with a pollution response demonstration featuring a helicopter operation, during which spraying was undertaken to contain an oil spill_ A vertical replenishment sortie, mail transfer and search-and-rescue drill followed. One of the high points was a dramatic anti-piracy operation in which bright orange hand-flares are created to mark out the hijacked ship for the storming operation to follow where hovercrafts are deployed to round off the ship and commandos on a smaller boat break into the vessel in distress. The fleet deployed for the near two-hour exercise included 11 surface units—Coast Guard ships Sagar, Sarang, Vigraha, Vajra, Rani Abbakka, Sarojini Naidu and Poyadarshint — high-speed interceptor boats C-151 and C-146, hovercraft H-151 and H-181 and six air units comprising three Domier aircraft and three Chetak heticoptegs. closeness with India.
Japan’s image in India has historically’ been positive, going back to the early 20th century when its emergence as a big power was interpreted by India as the beginning of Asian resurgence. Japanese support and assistance to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army (INA) continue to shape popular thinking about Japan.
The immediate post-independence experience was no less positive, with the Tokyo tribunal, waiving of reparations, conclusion of a separate Peace Treaty, the Asian Games and extension of yen loans.
Economic PerspectiveBilateral Trade:
The total volume of trade between India and Japan expanded from about $500 million in 1970 to roughly $4 billion in 1997.Bilateral Investment: Japan is currently among India’s top four sources of foreign direct investment. Japanese companies have made cumulative investments of around $2.6 billion in India since 1991. The 2007 annual survey conducted by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation ranked India as the most promising overseas investment destination for Japanese companies over the long term. Japanese FDI is found to be driven by trade factors and the yen appreciation.
Japanese” companies, such as Sony, Toyota, and Honda, have manufacturing facilities in India, and with the growth of the Indian economy, India is a big market for Japanese firms. Japanese firms were, in fact, some of the first firms to invest in India. The most prominent Japanese company to have an investment in India is automobiles giant Suzuki, which is in partnership with Indian automobiles company Maruti Suzuki, the largest car manufacturer in India and a subsidiary of the Japanese company.
CEPA: The landmark visit of PM Dr. Manmohan Singh to Tokyo in 2010, has imparted a further momentum and continuity to the India-Japan Strategic and Global Partnership. A Joint Statement “Vision for India-Japan Strategic and Global Partnership in the Next Decade” and a Joint Declaration on the India-japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) were signed. On 16 February 2011, the Comprehensive Economic PartnershipAgreement was signed by Minister of Commerce and Industry Mr. Anand Sharma and Japanese Foreign Minister Mr. Seiji Maehara.
Developmental Perspective Foreign Aid:
Since 1986, Japan has become India’s largest aid donor, and remains so. In October 2008, Japan signed an agreement with India under which it would provide the latter a low-interest loan worth US$4.5 billion to construct a railway project between Delhi and MumbaL This is the single largest overseas project being financed by Japan and reflected growing economic partnership between the two. The Japanese ODA loans to India are “untied loans”. These are routed through Japan International Cooperation Agency GICA). ODA loans are mostly project tied with an interest rate of 1.3% per annum for general projects with a 30 years tenure including a grace period of 10 years.
Japan has assisted India in infrastructure development projects such as the Delhi Metro Rail Project. Both sides are discussing the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project and Dedicated Freight Corridor Projects on the Mumbai-Delhi and the Delhi-Howrah routes. There are than 50 major infrastructure projects running in,India with Japan’s assistance. Infrastructure sectors like power, roads and bridges, water supply and sanitation, urban transport, and environment and forests are the priority sectors for Japanese ODA loans.
India is also one of the only three countries in the world with whom Japan has security pact, the other two being Australia and the United States. The Defense pact signed in 2008 involves joint defense exercises, policing of the Indian Ocean and military-to-military exchanges on counter-terrorism. Early 2012 will see both sides implement the Japan-India Defense Policy Dialogue in Tokyo, and staff talks between Ground Self Defense Force and Indian Army, staff exchanges between Air Self Defense Force and Indian Air Force. Japan’s association with Indian Navy formed part of the trilateral Malabar series of exercise with the United States. The two sides will implement exchanges on peacekeeping operations like International Peace Cooperation Training and Exercise Unit of the Central Readiness Force ofGSDF and Centre for United Nations – Peacekeeping (CUNPK), India.
Scientists from • India and Japan launched an exercise for signing a fresh memorandum of understanding for continuing research on climate change. It includes a study on biogeochemistry by observing eastern equatorial characteristics in the Indian Ocean. The exercise necessitated after expiry of MoU between the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and Japan Agency for Marine Earth Scence and Technology (JAMSTEC) in December, 2011.
Cultural PerspectivePopular goodwill in both societies has been a notable element in the relationship. In the collective Indian perception, there is a strong admiration for Japan’s post-war economic reconstruction and subsequent rapid growth. Popular goodwill in both societies has been a notable element in the relationship.
The cultural agreement between Japan and India was signed in 1936 and took effect the following year. In 1931, India established a scholarship system for overseas students. This system to this day provides an opportunity for young Japanese scholars who are today in the forefront of Indian studies to study in India. Cultural exchanges picked up in the 1980s; with Japanese local governments becoming involved in exchange activities with their Indian counterpart and traditional Indian performing arts being shown in Japan. In January 1994, the Japan Foundation opened an office in New Delhi that is actively engaged in cultural exchanges since 1978.
Japan has been extending cultural grant-in-aid to research institutes, universities, and cultural faculties to encourage their activities. In addition, through the UNESCO/ Japan Trust Fund for Preservation of the World Cultural Heritage, Japan and India have a strong Buddhist connection. Japan is helping with the preservation and restoration of the Buddhist monuments of Sanchi and Satdhara by sending experts and in other ways.
Further cultural exchange has.been occurring during the mid-late 20th century through Asian cinema, with Indian cinema and Japanese cinema both experiencing a !’golden age” during the to supply components to French and American companies which had won orders to install nuclear plants in India.
1950s and 1960s. Indian films by Satyajit Guru Dutt and Rajinikanth were 1;tiential in Japan, while Japanese films by Akira Kurosawa, Yasujiro Ozu and fakashi Shimizu have likewise been influential in India.
Bilateral Visits :
The dynamic growth of this relationship is reflected in the number of highlevel Ministerial and Parliamentary exchanges that have, been taking place at regular intervals. Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh has paid an official visit to Japan twice in 2006 as well as 2010. During the visit, the two Prime Ministers launched the India-Japan Friendship Year in 2007. Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda and Mrs. Hitomi Noda paid a State visit to India from 27 – 29 December 2011. There have been exchanges of several bilateral visits in 2012, being the 60th anniversary of the establishment of India-Japan diplomatic relations.
Political/ Geo Strategic PerspectiveThe global partnership between India and Japan reflects a broad convergence of their long-term political, economic and strategic interests, aspirations, objectives and concerns. The growing Indo-US political differences and strategic divergences affected In dia’s relations with Japan, since the latter’s foreign policy was conditioned by the western, especially American, views on world affairs. Even then some Japanese appeared to have appreciated and regarded India’s non-aligned foreign policy postures and its role in the developing world.
Relations between the two nations reached a brief low in 1998 as a result of Pokhran-I I, an Indian nuclear weapons test that year. Japan imposed sanctions on India following the test, which included the suspension of all Political exchanges and the cutting off of economic assistance. These sanctions were lifted three years later. Relations improved exponentially following this period. However Japan, may have quietly dropped the demand that India Sign the CTBT, but they continue to hold out a list of actions India must take to reassure them before they can sign the deal. Japanese companies have a virtual monopoly on supplying reactor vessels, a critical component of civil nuclear plants. Officials in the past said that without an India-japan civil nuclear agreement, Japanese origin firms might not be able
The end of the Cold War and the economic liberalization policy of India brought an unprecedented opportunity for India and Japan to forge a new creative relationship. At the beginning of the 21st century, Japan and India resolved to take their bilateral relationship to a qualitatively new level. Both realize that the current international situation, characterized by inter-dependence and the advent of globalization, offers fresh opportunities to both India and Japan for enhanced engagement for mutual benefit. . The foundation for this was laid when Mr. Yoshiro Mori, the then Prime Minister of Japan and Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee, the then Prime Minister of India agreed during the Japanese Prime Minister’s landmark visit to India in August 2000 to establish the “Global Partnership in the 21st Century”.
India and Japan must strive to strengthen their political, economic and strategic ties and to promote’ the peace, security, and prosperity of Asia as well as to advance international peace and sustainable development.
Apart from Japan and China; the other Asian tiger like (certainly India is the fourth one) South Korea also has buttressed and amplified its relational ‘depth’ and ‘spread’ with India. South Korea provides technological advancement to India (including in nuclear power projects) and India, in turn provides huge market to South Korea.So, again a win-win situations emerged between India and South Korea, as it is must for any IR sustainability.
Indo-Australia Economic Per spective :
Australia’s trade in goods and services with India was A$ 21 billion in 2010-11 with Indian exports of goods amounting to A$ 2.08 billion. Australia’s exports of goods to India have risen by an annual average of nearly 24% for the past 5 years. India is Australia’s fourth largest export destination. India’s exports of goods to Australia have risen by an annual average of 12.3% over the past 5 years. India’s main exports to Australia are gems and jewellery, machinery and textiles while our major imports are non-monetary gold, coal, copper, crude– and fertilizers.
The services trade between India and Australia amounted to US$ 3.5 billion in 2010-11 with Australian exports amounting to OS$ 2.47 billion. India’s main service exports to Australia are computer and information services and tourism. Australia’s main service exports are education, education related services and tourism.
Efforts are being made to diversify and enhance India’s exports to Australia. The two countries are currently discussing a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CECA) which will provide greater market access to Indian exporters of goods and services. On 12 May 2011 Trade Minister Craig Emerson and Indian Minister for Commerce and Industry Anand Sharma formally launched negotiations to conclude a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement between Australia and India. As of Jan 2012, the bilateral trade between the two countries touched the mark of $40 billion.
Bilateral Investment Indian investments in Australia are growing rapidly and a number of major companies have invested in resources projects including Sterlite Industries, the Aditya Birla Group, Adams and GVK Power and Infrastructure. Major Indian companies with a growing presence in the Australian market include Tata Power, Mahindras, Asian Paints, Reliarice, NMDC, Infosys, TCS, 3 HCL, State
Bank of India, New India Assurance and IFFCO. Australian companies present in
India include Telstra, BHP Billiton, Rio
Tinto, MIM Holdings, Snowy Mountain Engineering Corporation, the Australian
Wheat Board, P&O Australia, Clough Engineering, Lucent Technologies and ANZ Bank.