UPSC Civil Service Exam : General Studies for CSAT prelims and Mains
(Part 3 of 5)
- Act III: Waging the War
- Loading Doze and Maintenance Doze
- Economy : Prelims/ MCQs
- Economy : Mains
- International relations
- History (GS/CSAT)
- How to Approach Geography for CSAT-Prelims?
- World geography
- Indian geography
- Geography for GS-Mains
- Environment and biodiversity
- Yearbook: prelims and mains
- What is India Yearbook (2013)?
- Why is India Yearbook important?
- How to read India yearbook efficiently?
- Science for Prelims
- How to efficiently use THM GS Manual for Science segment?
- Physics Chapter on Science
- Science-Tech for prelims and Mains
- Public health and first aid
- First Aid
- Good governance, law and order
- Preparation Timetable
- What should you do next?
- Your City-District-State
- Stress Interview
Act III: Waging the War
Loading Doze and Maintenance Doze
- You fall sick and doctor gives you medicine.
- The initial doze is high : 2 tablets a day. (this is loading doze)
- Take tablets, they kill some bactaria and get eliminated through urine. = symptoms are decreased.
- But if you stop taking drug, then ultimately bacteria population will rise again.
- So doctor doesn’t completely stop the medicine but reduces the doze, e.g. just 1 tablet a day. (this is maintenance doze)
Ya but how is ^this relevant for UPSC exam?
If you’re already finished with the loading doze phase (e.g. core syllabus) then all you need is maintenance doze (revision). It leads to many positive effects
- Now your ‘vision’ expands. You can clearly see connections between topics and how they’re important for exam or not.
- Now you can allot time for upgrading your notes with current affairs.
- Now you can digup Government sites and internet for follow up action on various topics.
- Now you can practice mock MCQs (prelims) or answer writing (mains)
Besides, finishing the core syllabus is also important for another reason:= career backup plan.
- In case you fail in the IAS exam and If you’re not a CA, Doctor or IITian, what will you do? Well, the backup plans would usually involve Bank PO, State PSC, SSC type jobs or doing PG/MBA.
- Such exams are conducted throughout the year. Whatever you prepare general studies, will directly or indirectly help you in those exams.
- But Here is the problem: most of them require some specific side preparation as well for example Bank, SSC, CAT would require Aptitude. Similarly for State PSC, you’d have to learn the history and geography of Punjab, Maharashtra etc.
- So, If your core syllabus of UPSC is not complete, then you will always be under stress on how to manage time between preparation of these exam and it will be like choosing between devil and the deep sea.
Therefore, sooner you finish loading doze, better it’ll be for you. First of all complete the core/basic syllabus of following topics
||Otherwise, you will not be able to fully digest the newspaper columns.|
||You will have to spend less time before the mains on this topic. So that many days or weeks could be utilized for preparing other topics of general studies/opt subjects (if opt.subjects are kept)|
- For mains. Already discussed earlier:
- If you finish it in Nov-December then less time will have to be spent during August-October (i.e. after prelims result) and that many days/weeks could be then utilized into other topics and or optionals (if optionals are kept by UPSC )
The core syllabus of economy consists of the following things
Basic Concepts and terminologies, GDP,GNP,PPP,IIP, inflation etc.
Indian economy (static portion)
- LPG reforms.
- Budget making process.
- RBI monetary policy: Repo, Reverse Repo, CRR, SLR etc.
Source: Static portion of the economy
You have to move to the next level = current affairs related to Indian and world economy.
Source: Current affairs on economy
What is Economic Survey? And why is it important?
- It is a report published on the official website of Finance Ministry (before General budget is announced).
- This report contains information on the present situation of Indian economy, various schemes of Government and future approach required for the next year.
- It has lot of boring and unimportant data tables but also contains good fodder material and exam-worthy information.
- If you’re subscribed to any competitive Magazine, you would usually find the highlights of economic survey in the subsequent issues of the magazine. Yet I would recommend you to go through the original economic survey report because magazines or newspapers only tend to cover the dramatic items.
- Whatever important details you find, make a note out of it.
Economy : Prelims/ MCQs
- You are given a term and 4 explanations for that term. You have to identify the correct definition
- You are given a problem (inflation or low IIP or currency depreciation) and 2-4 possible solutions, you have identify the correct solution to fix the problem. (This can also be framed as assertion –reasoning type question)
- You are given name of a committee and 2-4 recommendations. You to tick the correct recommendations.
- Match the following: you are given name of some organizations on one side and functions performed by organizations on the other side. You have to match them
- Your given name of an organization SEBI/NABARD/CCI/RBI etc and four statements associated with them you have to find correct statements.
- You are given name of some government scheme or policy or act related to economy and four statements associated with them. You have to find the correct statements
- The trivial GK based questions e.g. names of businessmen/company, repo rate in particular month, establishment of particular organization etc. BUT they’re are generally not appearing under “back breakingTM move”
In short, whenever you are preparing anything related to economy, think on those lines and try to frame the questions by yourself. Also solve the mock questions given in your GS Manual.
Economy : Mains
In the 90s era, you could expect direct questions example
- Difference between the functions of IMF and World Bank =10 marks
- Explain the functions performed by RBI = 12 marks
- Explain the budget making process=20 marks.
Such direct questions are very unlikely to appear in future mains. At most they may ask such things on two markers or five marker question.
- The 12, 15, 20 marker economy-questions seems to be reserved for “critically examine/ Analysis” this and that type of questions.
- You have to keep gathering fodder material from newspaper columns. For example
- “Critically examine the issues involved in implementation of goods and services tax or Direct Tax code.”
- These topics will again gain momentum before and after the budget-2013.
- Keep an eye on the newspaper columns, TV reports during that time and maintain notes.
- Same advice for each and every topic. For example SEBI- e-IPO issue was in news few weeks back.
- So if you prepare the notes when the issue is still hot= best.
- Sometimes issues are very complicated and require you to do research on Internet. If you can’t do It immediately, then note down the title of topic in your “To-Do” list/diary.
- Otherwise after two three weeks you’ll forget it and get busy with some new important topic.
- Then same question would appear in Mains/ Prelims and you will curse yourself “damn I should have done that topic, when I had the time”.
You may also visit www.egyankosh.ac.in and download the relevant PDF files from Economics section for selective study and fodder material.
- Prelims: not part of syllabus. (ofcourse one or two random questions can come on world geography, Summits, Current Affairs)
- But for mains, international relations/ diplomacy =extremely important.
In Mains examination, The General Studies Paper II rests on four pillars
- International relations
- science tech
If any one pillar is weak, your building will collapse.
How to approach International Relations =Already explained in a separate article. Click ME
You also keep an eye on websites ministry of external affairs and ministry of overseas affairs.
Notes making = extremely important for international relations because usually you will not find direct answers in any single chapter or article. You’ve to keep following news for months.
- In Xyz Month, suppose there is big protest / PIL regarding POSCO. Newspapers will cover it and you get say 3 fodder points. Note it down
- After a few months, either S.Korea President comes to India or Mohan makes a trip there (Mohan usually makes foreign trips when there a new scandal at home, because then he is saved from answering the media or lets the “high command” cover up the problem hehehe.)
- Anyways back to the topic…so when leaders make trip to each other’s nation, they release a joint press statement. You’ll usually find 5 fodder points in it. Note down.
- After some months, China and S.Korea start fighting over some sea/land/island. Again newspaper columns start covering it and you get 3 points.
Total you’ve 3+5+3=11 points.
When they ask you about India-S.Korea relations, you can use those points to write a decent answer.
|The question is how to effectively use Laxmikanth? For that, don’t study the book in linear fashion (chapter 1,2,3,4…) Instead I suggest you move in following direction
Once ^this is done. Move to
- Citizenship, Fundamental rights, DPSP, duties.
- Amendment of Constitution=> preamble
- Jammu Kashmir => Scheduled and Tribal Areas.
- UT, Panchayati Raj, municipalities
After ^this is done. Read whatever chapters are remaining.
Note: the short explanations given in appendix of every chapter= should be read.
Q. Should I make notes out of Laxmikanth?
- M.Laxmikanth has the skill of writing book in a ‘note-format’.
- So whether it is his book on polity or on Public Administration, there is no need to maintain a special note out of his books.
- Just highlight/underline important lines. Note down keywords on the margin. And keep revising it as many times as you can.
- When you’ve done enough revision, solve mock questions given at the end of his book (around 300). Then solve another 400 Mock Qs given in the GS manual. So total 700 questions practiced. Then UPSC MCQs on polity will not give you much trouble.
Anyways ^this is only the static polity.
What about the current affairs on Polity?
- Women’s reservation bill = explicitly polity topic.
- But at times polity related current affairs and possible questions are subtly hidden in the current affairs.
- So be vigilant. For example, Nuke power plant issue would superficially appear as ‘environment/yearbook’ but can be well asked from Centre-State relations point of view.
- Supreme court’s order on Ganga/Yamuna clearing would appear as “environment” topic but can be asked under Centre-State’s responsibilities in water Management also.
- Same goes for 2G scam, mining scams and so on. (Judicial Activism, Seperation of power, CAG Activism and so on)
Sources for current affairs
–So far we have seen how to approach International affairs, Economy and Polity. You should finish their core syllabus first, in order to fully digest the newspaper items.
Now moving to the other topics of syllabus.
For prelims (CSAT General Studies Paper I), History is subdivided into three segments
|Ancient||Harappa, Vedic Age, Buddha, Mahavir, Gupta,Maurya Kingdoms etc.|
|Medieval||Delhi Sultanate, Vijaynagar, Mughals etc.|
|Modern||British Raj. 1857 Mutiny onwards. Freedom struggle.|
In the 90s, questions used to be based on
- Timelines: wars, kings,
- Locations: of Harappa Sites where xyz type of pottery was found, or Asoka’s pillars
- Match the following
- Maps: they’d give you a blank map, you had to locate xyz state or kingdom.
In last three years, questions are mostly based on religion, culture, art and ‘features/cause/reason’ type.
Although UPSC hasnot asked ‘map based’ question lately but if you’ve time, it doesn’t hurt preparing the maps (because UPSC is the baddest thug in this part of South East Asia.) you’ll find the Ancient/Medieval maps in NCERTs and in GS Manual.
Essential Booklist for History (GS/CSAT)
- NCERT class 7 to 10 Social Science
- NCERT class 11, 12 on History
- NOS Studymaterial on Indian Culture and Heritage.
^all of these free, download links @bottom of this article
- Selective Study of History portion in Tata Macgrawill General Studies Manual (to fill up vacuum of whatever details are missing in the NCERTs). But again skip very tiny details such as “Middle Palaeolithic tools were found at Nevasa, Maharashtra by HD Sankalia”. Because it won’t go in long term memory. Your time and energy can be better utilized in other topics.
Once this is done, solve all the Mock MCQs given in the General Studies Manual.
In The NCERT Class 9 and 10, you’ll also find information on World History (WW1, WW2, French Revolution, Russian Revolution etc) While they’re not specifically mentioned in the syllabus, you should read it because indirectly important for Essay and interview.
In the 90s, the General Studies paper used to have following structure, in History section
- 3-5 descriptive question (60 marks)
- Freedom fighter 2 markers (10 marks)
- Culture related 2 markers (10 marks)
Ofcourse there would be fluctuation each year, but this was the usual makeup.
- Success formula in 90s era= basically mugup Spectrum’s three books + Bipin Chandra.
- That doesn’t hold true any, as we saw in GS Mains-2012 Analysis (click ME if you didn’t)
- Nowadays weightage given to History in GS mains paper = declined and emphasis has been shifted to Culture.
So how to proceed in this new era?
- India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipin Chandra
- Selective Study of IGNOU BA/MA History (only related to freedom Struggle)
- Selective Study of IGNOU Tourism Course (for culture)
- NOS material on Indian culture
- Spectrum Book on Indian Culture
Because of the backbreakingTM move of UPSC, following books have lost their former glory. So I’m putting them under Secondary. If you’ve time, read else don’t bother. There are many other areas where you can utilize your energy.
- Spectrum Book on Brief History of Modern India
- Spectrum Book on Freedom Fighters
classified into three parts
- Physical geography
- World geography
- Indian Geography
the first two topics come in prelims syllabus. but they are not included in the main syllabus.
for Mains syllabus of General Studies, you’ve to prepare Indian Geography only.
How to Approach Geography for CSAT-Prelims?
First of all complete
- NCERT class 7 to 10 social science
- NCERT class 11, 12: Geography (except that practical book on mapping and survey methods)
- NOS Studymaterial on Geography (if the time and eyes permit you!)
When this is done, move to general studies manual to fill up the missing gaps if any.
Now let’s check how to effectively utilise Tata McGraw-Hill General studies manual for Geography portion.
- branches of geography= important
- origin of Earth= important
- ignore the geological history of Earth
- ignore the facts about earth (weight, volumne and stuff like that)
- understand the concepts related to longitudes, latitudes, meridians, inclination of Earth’s axis and its effect, standard time, cycles of the moon, atmosphere, Aurora -magnetism, insulation and heat budget, templated,
- mecanism of winds, monsoon
- ignore table of Beufort Scale
- ignore types of clouds
- understand the difference between dew, frost, fog, smog, mist and haze.
- types of climate, water table = important, also from environment and biodiversity Angle
- Understand the mechanism of cold and warm currents = because they are also related with climate change
- From lakes, only important and famous ones : Caspian Sea, Lake Superior, Superior, Victoria, Baikal, Aral Sea, Wulur, Vostock
- Same for rivers
- Marine resources= important for environment topic also
- Classification of rocks: prepare a small note on features and example of each type
- Theories of Plate tectonics, continental drift etc – just get overview
- Volcanos, Earthquakes important but no need to get in minute stuff. Just supplement NCERT
- Weathering, Erosion, landforms = important from environment topic angle.
- ignore table on major water falls, except famous ones : Angel, Victoria, Niagara,
- Soil is important but from agriculture point of view only.
- ignore the table containing classification of soil
- ignore US Taxonomy classification
- Go through entire human geography but ignore trivial details like Lapps= people of Eurasian trunda. (But famous tribes are important e.g.Bushman=Kalahari Desert.)
- Migration, resource classification, farming system, types of cultivation, agricultural typology= extremely important
- Chief agro products (tea, wheat etc) : the land/climate conditions required = important.
- Forest products= important from environment and biodiversity angle.
- Mineral producers= only the major ones (coal, iron ore, gold, nuclear, oil etc). Otherwies Mercury producers = Spain and Italy= ignore.
- industrial products= just get an overview
- important boundary lines= as the name suggests, it is important
- important cities= not that important for UPSC , but may help you in GK based questions in SSC/Bank.
- old name and new name for various countries and cities= indirectly important for the interviews.
In last two years, very few questions are coming from world geography. but at the same time, it is not a good idea to completely ignore world geography especially when you have time. because a something really straightforward asked Tropical Savannah climate, then you should not miss the opportunity.
- In the 90s, they would give you some map based questions. ( location of rivers, mountains, nations etc). but they have not asked map-based questions in last two years.
- but it does not hurt much preparing the Atlas because it indirectly helps you understand the international-relations and diplomacy topics in better manner.
- More emphasis should be given on the Indian geography because it is common for both prelims and mains.
- While Indian geography is important for prelims, the nature of question has changed.
earlier it used to be mapped based or location-based Indian geography but nowadays it is mostly related with agriculture, environment angles.
- first start with NCERTs and them move to TMH GS Manual.
- keep an Atlas Ready while reading everyline, otherwise things will not go long-term memory.
- for the lakes, rivers, waterfalls, irrigation projects, wildlife parks and sanctuaries etc. only prepare the famous ones and those related with odd animals such as Wild Ass. and prepare the trivial ones only if they are from your home state (for profile based interview questions and for State PSC)
- India’s industrial towns/tourist places: famous ones + those from your home state and surrounding neighbour states. No need to go in trivial. These things are for indirectly understanding the issues of socio-economic Development and for profile based interview questions. Otherwise direct MCQs are very unlikely.
- seasons, soil types, wildlife= important.
- ignore places connected by national highways. 90s era is over.
- sex ratio, literacy rate :top 3, bottom 3, and your home state.
- Tribal groups = important from culture angle.
- India maps on political, physical, wildlife and biosphere, seaports, soil-vegetation, = important for indirect MCQs.
Once this is done. (Physical, World and Indian Geography.) Again restart process and then solve MCQs from GS Manual.
Geography for GS-Mains
The way things have started taking shape, the conventional and clichéd questions are unlikely to appear any (for example monsoon mechanism.)
But still prepare Indian Geography from Economic, sustainable Development, Disaster and Environment angles.
- NCERTs, NOS, GS Manual.
- India Yearbook (Wastelands, Drough Management etc) and follow up on respective Government websites.
- 2nd ARC report on Disaster Management. http://arc.gov.in/
- Traditional books on Indian Geography are not likely to help directly like they used to in 90s (for example Spectrum/ Majid Hussain/ Khullar) But still you may go through any one of them, if you’ve the time.
That concluded talk on Geography. Moving to next topic of syllabus.
Environment and biodiversity
- When we talk of history or polity, there are already decent standard books available because those topics have been in syllabus since the beginning of UPSC exams.
- But this Biodiversity is newly introduced syllabus topic since CSAT 2011. Most of the ready-made books (and magazine’s ‘special issues’) on this topic provide you too much data, above what is necessary.
- For example in case of biodiversity, they’d give you a huge list of endangered species and their Latin names and how many animals are left.
- The establishment year of every wildlife park and their surface area with accuracy upto two decimal points like 48.25 kms!
- Environment biodiversity is not about becoming master of trivial GK, UPSC MCQs are not same like Kaun Bangegaa Crorepati.
Like every other topic in UPSC (except History and Statistics), we can classify EnB under two heads
|basic theoretical and static stuff such as biomes, bios, in-situ, ex-situ modes of wildlife conservation, keystone species, umbrella species, project tiger, elephant, biosphere reserves and things like that.||Issues involving various protocols or world conventions. IPCC reports, Kyoto etc.Supreme court orders on xyz issue: Clearing of Yamuna, Ban on Mining, Tiger tourism etc.|
Booklist/Preparation sources for Environment and Biodiversity
|Static (theory)||Current based|
- ^Prelims questions: mostly theory based= multiple revision must. (+ a few on current affairs)
- ^Mains questions: mostly current based. You must maintain notes.
- The source list may look intimidating but it is not!
- Because “environment” news doesn’t happen everyday (unlike Economy), so every week there will be no than 2-3 news items.
Moving to the next topic
Yearbook: prelims and mains
[Yearbook] is the collective term used to describe following
- Organization of various ministry and offices and their functions
- Various schemes and projects of Government
- Issues of socio-economic Development, five year plans
What is India Yearbook (2013)?
- A book released by Publication division under Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
- In common parlance we refer this as “Yearbook” but otherwise technically name of the book is “India 2011”, “India 2012”, and “India 2013” and so on (according to year of publication).
- For year 2013, this book will be released either in Dec 2012 or Jan 2013.
- Earlier, government used to provide free PDF file of this book. But they started doing it since 2012.
- This book also helps in “rights issue”, “environment”, “public health” topics.
- My advice: if you don’t have this book then wait and watch, buy the new edition 2013, when it comes in the market.
- If you already have a India 2012, no need to buy new, just update any new Government schemes using Government websites/newspaper/magazines.
- If you have a very old edition (something like India 2007) then dump it and buy the latest edition, because many schemes are consolidated / their salient features have been changed.
Why is India Yearbook important?
- Many publication houses, provide their own version of yearbooks for example Chronicle, wizard.
- They have the same content of India yearbook, but in bulleted form, some details are omitted, some side current affairs GK is added.
- While superficially, they may feel easier to read and prepare but my advice go directly to the original source because many times 4TF type MCQs are directly lifted from the statements and paragraphs given in India yearbook (i.e. India 2013)
From Yearbook topic, usually following type questions appear in the exam
||Basically Two types of questions can appear
Therefore You should have strong command over the salient features of every scheme, otherwise you will get confused in the MCQs. Besides the same salient features will also help you in descriptive answers during the mains exam. So prepare the topic on that line without wasting energy in useless stuff.
- Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme provides for setting up of residential upper primary schools for girls of SC, ST, OBC and Muslim communities. = important.
- In 11th five year plan, government of India allotted 8,000 crores under Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme= NOT IMPortant.
How to read India yearbook efficiently?
Already explained in previous article. Click ME
But this is only the static (theory/basic) part. What about the current affairs?
Because India yearbook 2013 is printed in Dec 2012, but many new events will take place between December 2012 to May 2013 (Prelims) and November 2013 (mains). How to prepare them?
Sources for Yearbook Current affairs:
- The Hindu
- Press releases from pib.nic.in (subscribe to them via Google reader)
- Economic Survey (will be uploaded on Finance Ministry’s website)
- Yojana and Kurukshetra
- Competitive Magazine (just to make sure we did not miss anything.)
Prepare a keywords note and revise it often else, you’ll mixup with salient features of various schemes and projects.
Moving to the next topic
Science can be classified into following parts
|Theory (Static)||Current Affairs|
||It is known as “science-tech”.|
Science for Prelims
The static (theory based) science has declined in importance. In the 90s you could expect 10-10-10 questions on physics, chemistry, biology each (theory based).
Nowadays barely 8-10 question and that too mixture of both theory + current affairs.
But it doesn’t mean you should skip the static (theory based) science because
- competition is damn high
- UPSC =unpredictable.
Therefore certain minimum level preparation is necessary for every topic. Beside there is lot of time still left before the exam.
Start with NCERT Science textbooks class 7 to 10.
- Even if you’re already an M.Sc, engineer or Doctor, still you should read these textbooks. because even if you have good command over your field, still you would have forgotten many important basic concepts from the school. So always start with NCERTs.
- And please dont read NCERTS lightly or just for namesake formality because UPSC will usually give you four statements and all of them would sound equally plausible. You should be thoroughly clear on principles/concepts.
- Once you have finished reading these textbooks, it is time for selective study of GS manual.
How to efficiently use GS Manual for Science segment?
Physics Chapter on Science
- difference between scaler and vector quantity=important
- Newton’s laws and their practical application=important
- the working principles behind artificial satellites, geostationary satellites etc. =important, but no need to mugup equations.
- The concept of densities important but you don’t need to mugup absolute density value of various substances. Same goes for surface tension, viscosity etc.
- Concepts and principles behind heat, electronic thermometer, refrigeration, radiation, solar cooker, thermos flask, carengine radiator, air-conditioners, pressure cookers, DTH TV, nightvision goggles, radar, oven, CAT Scan etc.
- Optics: convex and concave glasses: differences applications, refractions,
- Principle behind rainbow, LCD, camera microscope, LASER, compact disc etc. but no need to get bored with those complex diagrams.
- Sound: echo, resonsnace, doplar effect, sonic boom, dolby etc. : again you need to have idea on basics. No need for going into minute details.
- Same for Magnetism and electricity, Nuclear physics.
- In short, you should be aware of the concepts and principles but You don’t need to mugup equations of Velocity, acceleration, pendulum, sound etc.
- Branches of biology important
- difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is important
- Parts of typical cell, and their functions= important
- Basics of cell division mitosis and meiosis =important but no need to do Ph.D from GS Manual.
- Classification of living organism= you should have overall idea but no need to go in minute details like the difference between Deuteromycetes and Basiondiomycetes.
- Tissue system : same as above
- Nutrition and digestion system important but no need to go in details like 8 hours of work = 972 calories.
- respiration and photosynthesis: no need for Ph.D or chemical reaction
- Heart, kidney: just functions, no need to go diagram
- ignore diagram of conduction of nerve impulse
- Basic functions of Endocrine glands and diseases asscociated with them = important. But Cacitonin raises blood calcium level =not important.
- skeletal system: simply ignore. THM has given Ph.D on this.
- reproduction : concepts important. diagrams are not important.
- artificial methods of vegatative reproduction =extremely important.
- Plant hormor diagram= ignore
- sex determination in humans, birds and bees= important
- Table and Diagram on ABO blood group, Rh factor = very important.
- List of genetic disease = important but no need to mugup all, only big dieases like Sickle cell, Thalassemia.
- Basics of Gene Expression, m-RNA, t-RNA important else other topics stem cell, cancer, genetic engineering, cloning etc will be hard to understand.
- Tables for Disease, types, mode of transmission and symptoms= important (including for mains). But no need to mugup Latin names of those bactaria etc.
- Table on Vitamin function and disease = important
- monoclonal antibodies=important for mains also.
- Basics of antigen-antibody=important because vaccination works on that principle
^This is the basic biology. Now in the TMH GS Manual, they’ve given environment related stuff= important. We’ll discuss what to do with that, in separate topic “environment and Biodiversity: for the moment skip it move on to the topic of drug abuse and alcoholism. No need to mugup tables but you should have idea the ‘origin of various narcotic drugs’ .
e.g. LSD from fungi,
- Marijuana from hemp,
- Morphine, heroine = opium derivaties.
- Cocaine from coca leaves.
+Basic idea on alcoholism e.g.
- Hooch / Zehrili Sharaab is basically methanol and it causes blindness.
- Alcohol is not stimulant but depressant.
- Alcohol causes cirrhosis of liver
- Now comes the topic of Animal husbandary. Very brief overview,
- no need to mugup Latin names,
- Ignore animal disease table.
- Artificial insemination important
- You’d already have covered this topic through NCERTs, so use GS manual only to fill up any missing details such as ideal soil type, harvesting season, states
- because usually 4TF MCQs are prepared from that.
- No need to mugup every hybrid variety or latin name
- Type of plants = important
- Masticatory, medicinal plants and bio insecticides: only use/function.
From TMH GS manual.
- Symbols of elements= ignore.
- Chemical equations =ignore. because you’ve already ignored the symbols hahaha
- Use of chemical compound = important but their chemical formula is not important
- Ignore Thomson’s atomic model
- Ignore Rutherford’s Atomic model
- Ignore theories of chemical bonding
- Ignore periodic table
- Ignore molality, mole fraction and their equations
- Concept of solubility =important
- Oxidation –reduction mechanism and examples = important
- Carbon, its compounds and allotropes, carbon cycle=important
- Ignore Acid-base, hydrocarbon. Whatever you prepared in NCERT is sufficient. THM is going into Ph.D mode
- Table on natural occurrence of selected metals=important for big elements only. E.g.Dolomite =Magnesium and Magnetite= iron.
- Location of mineral wealth= important. You should idea on overall which mineral is found in which state.
- Basics of metal extraction, petroleum, steel, rusting, cement, glass =important
- Colloids= only basic definition and table of “types of colloidal system”, emulsion and gels =important
- Ignore Micelles topic.
- Biotech Nanotech and their applications =important both for prelims and mains
- Polysaccharides = use and sources =important. But chem formula=ignore, same for proteins and glycosides
- Ignore the equations govering gases, liquids and solutions.
- Understand the three laws of thermodynamics
- Ignore themodynamic potentials.
- The readymade Question answers given on “important concents and topics”= important to understand principle.
Once you’re done (physics, chemistry and biology) from GS Manual.
Restart the whole process one time (once again read NCERTs and once again read GS Manual) and then solve the Mock MCQs given at the end of each chapter.
This finishes the “theory” portion of Science. Now coming to the current affairs portion =“Sci-Tech”.
Science-Tech for prelims and Mains
- The Hindu (particularly Thursday edition)
- I’ve uploaded some ready revision notes from The Hindu’s article. That should give you the hints on how to approach a science related news articles from exam point of view, what to skip and what to note down.
- Magazine (any one CST or PD): just to make sure we did not miss anything from Hindu / current affairs.
- Internet, incase you need to do follow up question for a particular topic e.g. Human Genome project because such things can also come under 10 marks in Mains. But don’t do Ph.D on it. Like I said in previous Act- Application of Nanotechnology. This is meant for 12-15 marks, they’re not going to ask a 30 marks or 200 marks essay on it. So keep the size of notes accordingly.
- And don’t too much sci-tech. If you start digging google, there is so much Science-tech going on around the world throughout the year. But Beyond a level, this has diminishing rate of returns.
For the Science-Tech, Frequent revision is essential. Otherwise, it’d remain in your notes but you won’t be able to recall it in the exam hall.
Public health and first aid
- This topic is gaining quite some importance since last two mains (2011 and 2012)
- it is a mixture of Yearbook+Sci-Tech
- For prelims, this topic is not directly mentioned in the CSAT (Preliminary) syllabus yet 4TF MCQ questions based on diseases can come under the General Science.
- For Mains, the syllabus explicitly mentions Public Health.
Preparation sources/booklist for Public Health
- Basics of nutrition, disease, vaccination = NCERTs, GS Manual
- Government schemes and projects related to public health= India Yearbook Chapter on health and family welfare + and Government websites for new updates
- Press release of pib.nic.in
- Since last two years they have been asking role-playing question on First Aid treatment in the mains examination.
- Now that Doesn’t necessarily mean that they will definitely ask a question on first aid, in the next exam but you should be prepared. Go through the following PDF file (taken from IGNOU): Click ME.
Good governance, law and order
These are given in General Studies Mains syllabus
- Law enforcement, internal security and related issues such as the preservation of communal harmony.
- Issues relating to good governance and accountability to the citizens including the maintenance of human rights, and of pro-bity in public life
- 2nd ARC reports. http://arc.gov.in/
- Yojana issues related to the themes
- Besides it’ll also help you in essay and interview.
- + any current affairs (Lokpal, Citizen carter, Whistleblower, SC judgements etc) but you’d be preparing that already under [Polity]
You can also dig egyankosh.ac.in for good governance and law and order, but if Public Administration is not your optional then then it’ll give you diminishing rate of returns.
I think ^this should be sufficient for General Studies.
Yes there are some small time topics left. For example prelims syllabus has
- Public Policy,
- Rights issue,
- Panchayati Raj
But given the way UPSC conducted last two prelims, whatever you prepare under yearbook, polity (static + current), will help you in these questions. There is no need to prepare them separately using a book/coaching material. At most go forGovernance in India by M.Laxmikanth, if you’ve time- otherwise no need. You can also use the Sociology and Political Science textbooks of NCERT (Class 11,12).
These are no rock-solid time frames. Just suggestions
|Nov-December||Finish core syllabus of Economy, Polity and International relations. (to digest newspapers better)Prepare topics that are present in mains but absent in prelims viz
Go through the Yojana, Kurukshetra from Jan 2012 (incase you missed them)
+ lots of revision+ MCQ practice+ daily newspaper
|Aug/Sept/Oct||Prelims result is announced.A) If you fail= Don’t become Devdas. Review your mistakes and fix them in next attempt. But daily newspaper reading = essential till you retire from this field. Use your energy as per this article Click ME.B) If you’ve passed, thank the almighty God and proceed ahead.After UPSC’s #epic BackbreakingTM Moves shown in Mains-2012, there are hardly any Standard Reference books left to revise for mains, but still do it!Otherwise Daily reading of newspaper- notes making. (+follow up action, google digging for whatever new events are taking place)
|Dec||Vacation,Again don’t raise blood pressure in cut-offs debates, either watch some movies or rob a few banks. (but do read newspapers daily and make notes out of it.)|
|March-April||Result of Mains + interviews starts.
The interview preparation approach remains one and same for all Government and private sector jobs.
But the type and depth of questions differ.
Interviews usually start with “You” and end with “World”,
|You||Questions from your profile
|World||Everything else that doesn’t involve you.National and international issues, your understanding and opinion on them.|
- Throughout the Year, you should maintain a note related to current affairs of your city, state, graduation and hobbies (wherever applicable). Because you can’t gather such information in a month- even with all google searching.
- And you’re already preparing current affairs part of GS.
- When mains examination is over, You may also consult books from library Kalam, Nilekani, Guha etc gain understanding of socio-economic-developmental issues related with India. (and or truckload of IGNOU material on their website).
What should you do next?
- Your semester/year end marksheets contain the list of subjects you studied in college.
- When he browses through your file, suddenly asks “What is this subject xyz?”
- You should have the answer ready.
Just the basics, you don’t have to prepare minute details as if it is a GATE or PMT exam.
In every interview (IAS and career backups-State PSC, Bank, MBA etc), you’ll have to prepare questions on graduation. But It is very tiresome to go through the same thick books over and over again every time for interviews. So, Ideally make a very short note on the basics. Save you the trouble forever.
Then second portion is current affairs related to your graduation
|Doctor, pharma||Public health, AIDS,Cancer research etc. (already discussed under GS preparation)|
|Engineer||IT: outsourcing, hacking, privacy and social networking, online shopping, IT act, amendments etc.EC :2G, 3G etc.|
|Commerce||Company act and amendments, DTC, GST etc.|
|Arts (litt.)||Booker prize, any other famous books, litt and freedom of speech, controversies of Tasleema Nasrin / Salman Rushdie etc.|
^list is not exhaustive. You can’t come up with this in one day or one week. So keep following newspaper and dig google.
- After mains examination is over, dig up about Your graduation, city and State: Socio-economic-political-cultural-geography.
- Look beyond the obvious. E.g. You’re from Ahmedabad so you already know Sabarmati river flows through your city. And interviewer also knows that you know about this obvious fact. So instead, he’ll ask you “Where does Sabarmati originate from? or why is it dry during some months? And where does it meet the sea, is It gulf of Cambay or is it gulf of Kutch?”
- Usually you’re not aware of places of cultural/historic/tourist importance in your own city while people elsewhere are. So dig all information. Ofcourse this also doesn’t mean digging up extremely trivial GK.
- The name of MP, MLA of your Constituency, JNNURM projects in your city, BRTS and so on..
- Same for the district.
- Then your State: for example Maharashtra you should be well versed in Leopard menace, nuclear powerplant, Vidarbha issues etc.
- Every State has its issues (both good and bad) and it is not necessary they’ll be in current affairs : for example Cyclone of Orissa, happened long time ago but if you’re from that state you must have idea on it. Again doesn’t mean you do Ph.D on it from some library book.
Following can happen during interview
- You give good answer- He asks followup questions to probe you further. Then he leaves the topic and next board member asks you on a different topic.
- You give no answer e.g. “Sorry sir I’m not well versed in that topic.” Or you give wrong answer. He either corrects you or usually leaves topics, or ask a new question from same subject.
- You give bad answer- he throws a counter question /argument (that usually doesn’t have an answer) the you debate, it increases the chances of getting low marks and the interview turning into a “Stress-interview”.
Some examples of bad answers
- Wrong Choice of words that hints arrogance/lack of humility. For example saying “I don’t agree with that” instead of saying “I beg to differ”.
- I donot know xyz topic because it was not in my graduation syllabus or because I was preparing for UPSC during college so I don’t know about that xyz topic.
- I want to do IAS because there is no opportunity in my graduation field or because I don’t like that field or because there is no career growth in my private sector job.
- For me IAS is not an end but a means for further personal growth in life or some other mumbo-jumbo. (Repeated 5 thousand times in topper interviews. So even if your intention is genuine, for them it is too phony and clichéd answer.)
- I know xyz thing, because it is given in Hindu/Laxmikanth/ notes. (never cite references unless specifically asked to.)
- Book should not be judged by its cover, therefore I’m not wearing a tie….or any answer which you think is ‘smart’ but he thinks is, ‘oversmart’.
- Lopsided diagnosis and solution of a problem/issue. (Public policymaking should be left in the hands of bureaucrats only……We must stop all trade relations with Pakistan until they shut down terror camps……Panchayati Raj serves no real purpose, instead recruit Government staff to look into Development issues at Tehsil or village level.)
- If he asks 90% of the questions from one subject only (for example International relations), Then from his side it is a normal interview, but from your side it may feel like a stress interview.
- But stress interview, in its original form, means he intentionally counters your every answer or argument or asks uncomfortable questions.
- This is done, not to humiliate you but to test how you perform under stress. (Or because you annoyed him and he wants to get even with you.)
- By and large, UPSC interviews are not stress interviews but they’re not completely absent either (many cases on orkut.)
An interview may turn into Stress interview because of following reasons
- You’re plain unlucky.
- You’re underprepared and your Body language shows it.
- Giving Bad answer(s) or bad choice of words.
- At home, in your head-run imaginary interviews. Ask your self questions, give yourself answers and from those answers, pickup keywords and ask follow up questions.
- When you’ve run enough imaginary interviews in your head, you’ll realize that certain keywords or answers lead to followup questions from uncomfortable zone or underprepared areas where you end up giving bad answers. So consciously avoid them and rephrase or upgrade answers accordingly.
Remaining Part of the UPSC Strategy
Appendix: Download Links
These Zip files contain PDF files. All of them important for concept/fact based Multi choice questions on Science, History, Geography, Polity, Culture.
|Science Class 7||Download|
|Our Pasts Part 2 – Class 7||Download|
|Social and Political Life Part 2 – Class 7||Download|
|Our Environment Class 7||Download|
|Science Class 8||Download|
|Our Pasts Part 3 – Class 8||Download|
|Resource and Development Class 8||Download|
|Social and Political Life – Class 8||Download|
|Science Class 9||Download|
|Contemporary India Social Science for Class 9||Download|
|Economics for Class 9||Download|
|India and Contemporary World 1 for Class 9||Download|
|Science Class X||Download|
|India and the Contemporary World 2 Class X Social Science||Download|
|Democratic Politics Part 2 for Class X Social Science||Download|
|Contemporary India Part 2 for Class X Social Science||Download|
|Understanding Economic Development Class X Social Science||Download|
|Fundamentals of Physical Geography Class 11||Download|
|India Physical Environment Geography Class 11||Download|
|Indian Economic Development Economics Class 11||Download|
|Themes in World History Class 11||Download|
|India People and Economy Class 12||Download|
|Introductory Microeconomics Class 12||Download|
|Macroeconomics Class 12||Download|
|Fundamentals of Human Geography Class 12||Download|
|Themes in India History 1 Class 12||Download|
|Themes in India History 2 Class 12||Download|
|Themes in India History 3 Class 12||Download|