General knowledge gk pdf book download for upsc gpsc

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General knowledge gk pdf book download for upsc gpsc ibps nda all competitive exams
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SOLAR SYSTEM – STATISTICS
The solar system consists of the Sun and 9 planets
revolving around it in different orbits. The statistics of
the sun and the planets are given below :
SUN
Age : About 5 Billion years
Distance : 149.8 Million Kms
Diameter : 1,38,400 Kms.
Photosphere temperature : 5,770 K
Core temperature : 150,000,000 K
Absolute visual magnitude : 4.75
Rotation (as seen from the
earth at the equator) : 25.38 days
Rotation (near the poles) : 33 days
The sun consists of 71% of Hydrogen, 26.5% Helium and
2.5% of other elements.
The rays of the Sun take about 8 minutes to reach the
earth.
PLANETS
(1) MERCURY : It is the planet nearest to
the earth.
Average distance
to the Sun : 57.6 Million Kms.
Diameter : 4,849.6 Kms.
Period of revolution : 88 days
Period of rotation : 58 days 15 hrs 30 mts. 34
sec.
(2) VENUS : It is also known as the
Morning Star or the
Evening Star. It is the
brightest of all the
planets.
Diameter : 12,032 Kms.
Period of revolution : 225 days
Period of rotation : 243 days 14mts.
(3) EARTH
Equatorial diameter : 12,756 Kms.
Polar diameter : 12,714 Kms.
Distance from the Sun : 149,597,900 Kms.
Period of revolution : 365 days 5 hrs, 48 mts,
45.51 sec.
Period of rotation : 23 hrs 56 mts. 4.09 sec.
LATEST STUDY MATERIALS WITH KEY POINTS
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
(4) MARS
Diameter : 6,755.2 Kms.
Distance from the Sun : 225.6 Million Kms.
Period of revolution : 687 days
Period of rotation : 24 hrs 37 mts. 22.663 sec.
(5) JUPITER : This is the largest planet
in the solar system.
Diameter : 141,968 Kms.
Distance from the Sun : 772.8 Million Kms.
Period of revolution : 11.9 years
Period of rotation : 9 hrs 50 mts. 30 sec.
(6) SATURN : It was discovered by
Galileo.
Diameter : 119,296 Kms.
Distance from the Sun : 1,417.6 Million Kms.
Period of revolution : 29.5 years
Period of rotation : 10 hrs 14 mts.
(7) URANUS
Diameter : 52,096 Kms.
Distance from the Sun : 2,852.8 Million Kms.
Period of revolution : 84 years
Period of rotation : 16 hrs 10 mts.
(8) NEPTUNE
Diameter : 49,000 Kms.
Distance from the Sun : 4,497 Million Kms.
Period of revolution : 165 years
Period of rotation : 18 hrs 26 mts.
(9) PLUTO : This is the coldest and
smallest of all planets. It
is also the most distant
one.
Diameter : 3,040 Kms.
Distance from the Sun : 5,865.6 Million Kms.
Period of revolution : 248 years
Period of rotation : 6 days 9 hrs and 18 mts.
MOON : Moon is earth’s satellite.
Its period of rotation and
Period of Revolution are
the same. i.e.29
1
2
days.
THE UNIVERSE
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THE EARTH DATA
Surface Area : 510,100,500 Sq.Kms.
Land Surface : 148,950,800 Sq.Kms.
(29.08%)
Water Surface : 361,149,700 Sq.Kms.
(70.92%)
Equatorial circumference : 40,075 Kms.
Polar circumference : 40,008 Kms
Equatorial radius : 6,377 Kms.
Equatorial Diameter : 1,22,756 Kms.
Polar radius : 6,357 Kms.
Polar Diameter : 12,714 Kms.
Mean distance from the
Sun : 14,95,97,900 Kms.
Period of revolution : 365 days 5 hours 48 mts.
45.51 Sec.
Period of rotation : 23 hrs. 56 mts. 4.091 Sec.
Escape Velocity from
the earth : 11 Km per Sec. (minimum)
THE WORLD
The seasons are due to the change of the Earth’s
position in the course of its revolution about the Sun,
and to the inclination of its axis. The Equator is an
imaginary line drawn round the Earth midway between
the Poles. There are two other lines, namely, Tropic of
Cancer (23½O N) and the Tropic of Capricon (23½O S).
The word tropic means, ‘turning place’. The inclination
of the Earth’s axis together with its revolution round the
Sun is the cause of the varying length of day and night in
different parts of the world. On March 21 (Vernal Equinox)
and September 23 (Autumnal Equinox) the Sun is overhead
at the Equator. On these dates, except at the Poles,
(a) days and nights are equal all over the world; and (b)
the Sun rises exactly due east and set exactly due west at
all places on the Earth’s surface. At the Equator itself
days and nights are equal throughout the year. Between
March 21 and September 23, when the North Pole is tilted
towards the Sun, the days are longer than the nights
throughout the Northern Hemisphere and there is
continuous daylight at the North Pole. Similar conditions
are experienced in the Southern Hemisphere and the
South Pole between September 25 and March 21.
Latitude and Longitude:
Latitude is distance, measured in degrees, north or
south of the Equator. Longitude is distance, measured in
degrees, east or west of any fixed meridian. The meridian
passing through Greenwich is numbered 0O. On a globe
the meridians are numbered from 0O to 180O E (East) or W
(West). At the equator the degrees are 69 to 70 miles
apart (25000÷360). Since earth completes one rotation on
its axis in 24 hours, 360 meridians pass under the Sun in
that time. Therefore, 1 degree passes under the Sun every
4 minutes.
International Date Line:
If we travelled westward to a place X on longitude
180o W, the time there would be 12 hours behind
Greenwich time (180 x 4 minutes = 720 minutes = 12 hours).
If we journeyed eastward to a place Y on longitude 180o
E, the time there would be 12 hours ahead of Greenwich
time. Thus X and Y both on 180o have the same time but
The Earth and the Solar System :
The Earth is a member of the Solar System. It is one
of nine major planets revolving round the Sun. Of these,
Mercury and Venus are nearer, and Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are farther away from the
Sun than the Earth.
The planets radiate no light of their own, but shine
with that reflected from the Sun. The Sun has a diameter
of 864,000 miles (1,390,000 Kms) and it is 93,000,000 miles
(150,000,000 Kms) from the Earth. The Sun is a star. The
stars, unlike the planets, are self-luminous bodies. The
other stars appear small because they are so far away;
the nearest star, Proxima Centauri, is 200,000 times
distant from us than the Sun.
The Moon is a dead planet. It is about 240,000 miles
(386,000 Kms) from the Earth. The Moon revolves round
the Earth taking approximately 29 days to complete one
round. The phases of the Moon are the result of its
position in relation to the Earth and the Sun.
The Moon’s orbit is ecliptical and inclined at an
angle of 5o to the plane of the Earth’s orbit. This explains
why we do not have a total eclipse of the Sun every time
there is a new moon.
The Earth:
The Earth is a sphere but it is not a perfect sphere.
It is slightly flattened at the poles and bulges at the
equator. The circumference of the earth is approximately
25,000 miles (40,000 Kms).
It rotates on its axis once in every 24 hours, spinning
from west to east. Besides spinning on its axis, it also
moves round the Sun, called the revolution.
Its orbit round the Sun is oval or ecliptical. The
time taken to complete one revolution is approximately
365¼ days or one year. For convenience, one year is
taken as 365 days and the shortfall of ¼ day each
year is made good in the Leap Year which consists of
366 days. The Earth’s axis inclined to the plane of its
orbit at an angle of 66½O.
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differ in date by a day (12 hours + 12 hours = 24 hours).
To overcome the confusion that would otherwise arise,
the International Date Line has been established. It runs
along 180o E or W. Westward-bound vessels crossing
the Date Line drop a day from the calendar, while those
going eastward add a day by giving the same date to two
consecutive days. Instead of changing the time exactly
according to change in degrees at the rate of 4 minutes
per degree, certain time zones have been established. All
places in the same area or time zone or time belt, use
what is called Standard Time. Thus we have the
Greenwich Mean Time (G.M.T) and the Indian Standard
Time (I.S.T). There are five time-belts in Canada and four
in United States.
The Lithosphere:
The mass of the Earth is generally divided into three
layers, namely, Crust, Mantle and Core. The Lithosphere
is the name given to the outer Crust which is not
than 10 miles thick. It is made up of a great variety of
rocks, soils, etc.
Rocks:
1. Sedimentary Rocks:These rocks are made up of
deposits laid down on the floor of river beds, lakes
and seas.
Examples:Sand and sandstone, clay, lime stone,
chalk and carbonaceous rocks, such as lignite, coal
and anthracite.
2. Igneous Rocks:These are primary rocks which are
formed by cooling and solidification of molten lava.
When such rocks are poured out on the surface
they are known as Volcanic rocks, e.g. basalt. When
the molten material solidifies at considerable depth,
plutonic rocks are formed, e.g. granite.
3. Metamorphic Rocks:These rocks are formed as a
result of alteration by extreme heat and or pressure
of igneous or sedimentary rocks. Example, slate,
gneiss, schist etc.
Soil:
The upper layers of rocks weather to form the soil.
There are three distinct layers of soil. The uppermost
layer forms the top soil. The second layer is called the
subsoil. The third layer is made up of decomposing and
much-broken rock, known as mantle- rock. The type of
soil depends on a number of factors, namely, climatic
conditions, the nature of the parent rock, relief, vegetation
and the period over which it has been worked by man.
Soils may by broadly classified as (a) Forest, (b) Grassland
and (c) Desert types.
Mountains:
In past geological ages disturbances in the Earth’s
interior have caused crumpling and cracking of the crust.
This has resulted in great upholds forming Fold-
Mountains which are mainly made up of folded strata of
sedimentary rocks, e.g. the Alps, the Rockies, the Andes,
and the Himalayas. The mountain structures worn down
by prolonged denudation are known as Residual
Mountains, e.g. Highlands of Scotland and Scandinavia.
Denudation:
The process known as denudation or the wearing
away of the land is continually going on. The chief causes
of such erosion are (a) changes in temperature; (b) frost;
(c) winds; (d) water, including rivers; (e) ice; and (f) the
action of the sea. Steps to combat soil erosion include (i)
terracing; (ii) contour ploughing; (iii) strip cropping (iv)
planting shelter belts of trees; and (v) plugging the gullies
by building small dams etc.
The Atmosphere:
The air is composed mainly of nitrogen (78%) and
oxygen (21%) with small proportions of carbon dioxide,
water vapour and rarer gases like argon and neon.
Atmosphere is 200 miles thick, but nine-tenths of the air
composing it is found within 12 miles, and half within 3½
miles of the earth’s surface. We are concerned mainly
with the lower layer of troposphere. The upper layers in
the ascending order are Stratosphere, Mesosphere and
Ionosphere. Troposphere extends to a distance of about
ten kilometres. Stratosphere is a region extending from
an altitude of about 11 Km to 50 Km above the earth. The
upper part of stratosphere has plenty of ozone which
protects us from the fatal effects of Sun’s ultraviolet
radiation. Mesosphere is the next layer extending from 50
to 80 Kms above the earth. It is a very cold region.
Ionosphere extends from about 60 Kms upwards. It
includes Thermosphere and Exosphere which marks the
outer limits of the earth’s atmosphere.
Wind is air in motion:
The chief cause of wind is difference in atmosphere
pressure. One of the main reasons for differences in
pressure is unequal heating of the air. From the high
pressure belts the air flows outwards to the regions of
low pressure. Owing to the rotation of the earth, the winds
do not blow due north and south, but are deflected. In
this deflection they obey Ferrel’s Law which states, “Any
moving body on the earth surface including a current of
air, tends to be deflected, the deflection being to the right
in the northern hemisphere and to the left in southern
hemisphere.” Land and seabreezed are local winds caused
by the unequal heating of land and water. During the day
the land becomes very much hotter than the sea, with the
result that there is marked low pressure over the land.
Thus the air over the sea flows rapidly loses heat, but the
sea remains warm for a longer time. Thus at night, heavy
cool air blows from the land to take the place of warm air
rising over the sea. The monsoon or seasonal winds may
be regarded as land and sea breezes on a large scale, in
which the time-frame is a year instead of a day. This
phenomenon is to be found in south-east Asia, but is
especially marked in the subcontinent of India. A cyclone
is a portion of the atmosphere in which the pressure is
lowest in the centre. The winds blow inwards in anticlockwise
direction in the Northern Hemisphere. In the
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Southern Hemisphere cyclonic winds blow in a clockwise
direction in accordance with Ferrel’s Law. An anticyclone
is a portion of the atmosphere in which the pressure is
highest in the centre. The winds blow outwards in a
clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in
an anti-clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Oceans:
It is estimated that 72% of the surface of the globe
is covered with water. The Pacific, which is the greatest
of all oceans, covers a third of the earth’s surface, its
total area being greater than that of all the dry land.
Atlantic is slightly less than half the size of the Pacific,
yet so many great rivers flow into it that it receives half
the drainage of the world. The other oceans are Indian,
Mediterranean, Antarctic and Arctic. The average depth
of the ocean is 12,500 feet, compared with the average
height of the land which is about 2,500 feet. The greatest
known depth is that of the Marianas Trench in the Pacific,
where a depth of 35,800 feet has been recorded.
Tides:
Tides are caused by the gravitational attraction –
the ‘pull’ of the moon on the earth, sometimes assisted
by and sometimes hindered by the Sun.At new and full
moon, when the Sun, Moon and Earth are practically in a
straight line the attractive force of the Sun increases that
of the Moon. Such high tides are called spring tides.
Weather and Climates:
Weather may be defined as the condition of the
atmosphere at any place at a particular time. The average
weather conditions determine the climate. Humidity,
temperature, elevation, distance from the sea, ocean
currents, atmosphere pressure and prevailing winds
combine to affect the climate of a region.
Humidity:
Humidity, the term used to express the dampness
of the atmosphere, is due to the pressure of water vapour.
Evaporation is the mean by which water is drawn off as
invisible water vapour from oceans, lakes, rivers, etc.,
when the air contains as much water vapour as it can
hold is said to be saturated. When saturated air is cooled,
condensation takes place and some of the water which
form the clouds grow larger, they precipitate i.e., fall to
the earth as rain. The proportion of water vapour in the
air, compared with the maximum it can hold at the same
temperature, is known as Relative Humidity. Dew is
caused by the condensation of water vapour on the cold
ground during the night. The temperature at which such
condensation takes place is called the Dew Point. When
condensation takes place near the surface (and not on
the ground) the result is usually mist or fog. When
condensation takes place at some distance from the
ground, clouds are formed. When water vapour is
condensed at a temperature below freezing point it forms
snow. There are various kinds of clouds. The layer like
clouds often seen on the horizon at sunrise and sunset
are called stratus clouds. The light wispy clouds formed
high in the sky are called cirrus clouds. The heaped up
clouds, looking rather like masses of cotton wool are called
cumulus clouds. The black rain clouds are known as
nimbus.
Temperature:
Of all climatic factors, temperature is the most
important. It affects man’s food, crops, dress and the
type of dwelling he builds. Temperature decreases 1oF
for every 300 feet above the sea-level. This decrease
is largely due to the fact that the rarified air, found
in elevated regions, absorbs less heat than the denser
air at lower levels.
SEVEN NATURAL WONDERS
OF THE WORLD
1. Mount Everest, on the border of Tibet and Nepal.
2. The Nile River, Egypt.
3. Rio de Janeiro Harbour.
4. Iguassu Falls, Argentina.
5. Yosemite Valley and the Giant Sequioas of California.
6. The Grand Canyon, Colorado River, Arizona.
7. The Northern Lights, especially from Northern
Canada and Alaska.
SEVEN WONDERS OF TODAY
1. The Taj Mahal of Agra, India.
2. The Great Pyramid of Egypt and the adjacent Great
Sphinx of Gizeh.
3. Hagia Sophia, 6th Century, in present day Istanbul.
4. Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy.
5. The Eiffel Tower, Paris.
6. The Washington Monument, Washington.
7. The Empire State Building, New York City.
SEVEN WONDERS
OF THE ANCIENT WORLD
1. The Pyramids of Khufu
2. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
3. The Temple of Artem is at Ephesus
4. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia
5. The Mausolus at Halicarnassus
6. The Colossus of Rhodes
7. The Pharos (Lighthouse) at Alexandria
SEVEN WONDERS
OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD
1. The Colosseum of Rome
2. The Great Wall of China
3. The Porcelain Tower of Nanking, Cahina
4. The Mosque at St.Sophia (Constantinople)
5. The Stonehenge of England
6. The Catacombs of Alexandria
7. The Leaning Tower of Pisa
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GEOGRAPHICAL EPITHETS-WORLD
America’s Motor City Detroit
Britain of the South New Zealand
China’s Sorrow River Hwang Ho
City of Dreaming Spires Oxford (England)
City of Eternal Springs Quito (S.America)
City of Flowers Cape Town (S.Africa)
City of Golden Gate San Francisco (USA)
City of Magnificient Buildings Washington (USA)
City of Quiet thoroughfares Venice
City of Seven Hills Rome (Italy)
City of Skyscrapers New York (USA)
Cockpit of Europe Belgium
Dark Continent Africa
Emerald Isle Ireland
Empire City New York
Eternal City of Hopes Rome, Italy
Forbidden City Lhasa (Tibet)
Garden City Chicago
Garden in the desert Ethiopia
Garden of England Kent (England)
Gate of tears Strait of bab-el-Mandeb
Golden City Johannesburg
Gibraltar of Indian Ocean Aden
Gift of Nile Egypt
Granite City Aberdeen
Hanging Valleys Valley of Switzerland
Hermit Kingdom Korea
Herring Pond Atlantic Ocean
Holy Land Palestine
Human Equator of the Earth Himalayas
Island Continent Australia
Island of Cloves Zanzibar
Island of Pearls Bahrain (Persian Gulf)
Islands of Sunshine West Indies
Kashmir of Europe Switzerland
Key to Mediterranean Gibraltar
Land of Five Seas South West Asia
Land of Lakes Scotland
Land of Golden Pagoda Myanmar
Land of Kangaroo Australia
Land of Golden Fleece Australia
Land of Lilies Canada
Land of Maple Canada
Land of Midnight Sun Norway
Land of Morning Calm Korea
Land of Rising Sun Japan
Land of Setting Sun United Kingdom
Land of Thousand Elephants Laos
Land of Thousand Lakes Finland
Land of Thunderbolt Bhutan
Land of White Elephant Thailand
Loneliest Island Tristan De Gumha
(Mid. Atlantic)
Manchester of Japan Osaka (Japan)
Pillars of Hercules Straits of Gibraltar
Play Ground of Europe Switzerland
Quaker City Philadelphia
Queen of the Adriatic Venice
Roof of the World The pamirs (Tibet)
River in the Sea Gulf Stream
Sickman of Europe Turkey
Sugar Bowl of the world Cuba
Venice of the East Bangkok
Venice of the North Stockholm
White City Belgrade
Windy City Chicago
Workshop of Europe Belgium
World’s Loneliest Island Tristan Da Cunha
Yellow River River Hwang Ho
(China)
Durand Line Pakistan and Afghanistan
Hindenburg Line Germany and Poland.
Mac Mohan Line India and China
Maginot Line France and Germany.
Oder Neisse Line East Germany and Poland.
Radcliffe Line India and Pakistan
Siegfried Line Germany and France.
17th Parallel North and South Vietnam
24th Parallel India and Pakistan
38th Parallel North and South Korea
49th Parallel U.S.A. and Canada
WORLD – MINERALS
GEOGRAPHICAL DISOVERIES
America Chiristopher Columbus
Sea-route to India Vasco-da-Gama
North Pole Robert Peary
South Pole Amundsen
Suez Canal Designed by Ferdinand de
Lesseps
Aluminium USA, France & India
Asbestos Canada, Zimbabwe
Bauxite Australia, Guinea
Chromium Zimbabwe, India
Coal U.S.A., England, Russia and
Germany
Copper Ore CIS, U.S.A.
Crude Oil CIS, Saudi Arabia
Diamonds CIS, Zaire
Gold South Africa, South America,
Australia
Graphite Ore CIS, Brazil
FAMOUS LINES, FRONTIERS
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Ilmenite India
Iron Ore U.S.A., Russia
Lignite East Germany, CIS
Manganese Ore CIS, South Africa
Mercury Italy, Spain
Mica, Monazite India
Natural Gas U.S.A., CIS
Nickel Ore Canada, CIS
Petroleum U.S.A., Russia & Middle East
Countries
Phosphate U.S.A., CIS
Silver Mexico, U.S.A., and India
Steel U.S.A., Russia, U.K. & Germany
Tin Malaysia, Indonesia
Uranium U.S.A., Canada
Zinc Ore Canada, CIS
WORLD – INDUSTRIES
Baku (Russia) Petroleum
Bangkok (Thailand) Shipping
Belfast (Ireland) Ship buildings, Linen
goods
Buenos Aires (Argentina) Dairy Products
Cadiz (Spain) Cork
Chicago (U.S.A.) Gramophone
Detroit (U.S.A.) Automobiles
Dresden Optical and
P h o t o g r a p h i c
apparatus
Glasgow (Scotland) Machinery, Textiles
Havana (Cuba) Cigar
Hollywood (U.S.A.) Films
Johannesburg (South Africa) Gold Mines
Kimberley (South Africa) Diamond Mining
Leeds (England) Woollen Goods
Los Angeles (U.S.A.) Film, Oil
Lyons (France) Silk
Morocco (North America) Leather
Munich (Germany) Lenses
New Orleans (U.S.A.) Cotton
Pitsburg (U.S.A.) Iron and Steel
Plymouth (England) Ship building
Sheffield Cutlery
Venice (Italy) Glass
Vienna (Austria) Glass
Wellington (New Zealand) Dairy Products
COUNTRIES AND ALTERNATIVE NAMES
Bechuanaland Botswana
Burma Myanmar
Ceylon Sri Lanka
Dutch Guiana Surinam
Formosa Taiwan
India Bharat
Japan Nippon
North Borneo Sabah
Kampuchea Cambodia
Rhodesia Zimbabwe
Siam Thailand
South-West Africa Namibia
NATIONAL EMBLEMS
NAME OF PARLIAMENT
Afghanistan Shora
Britain Parliament
Denmark Folketing
Germany Bundestag
India Parliament
Iran Majlis
Israel Knesset
Japan Diet
Malaysia Majlis
Nepal Panchayat
Netherlands States General
Norway Storting
Poland Seym
Russia Supreme Soviet
Spain Crotes
Sweden Riksdag
Taiwan Yuan
U.S.A. Congress
Australia Kangaroo
Canada White Lily
France Lily
India Lioned Capitol
Italy White Lily
Japan Chrysanthemum
Pakistan Crescent
Spain Eagle
U.K. Rose
U.S.A. Golden Rod
SIGNS AND SYMBOLS
Sun Air India
Wheel (Chakra) Progress
Red Triangle Family Planning
Black Flag Protest (or Flag flown at half mast
National Mourning)
Red Cross Hospital Medical Aid
Red Light Traffic Sign “Stop”
Lotus Culture & Civilization
White Flag Truce
Olive Branch Peace
Stars and Stripes National Flag of U.S.A.
Tricolour National Flag of India
Justice A Blind-folded woman holding a
balanced scale.
Union Jack National flag of U.K.
Hammer & Sickle National Flag of Russia
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ARCHIPELAGO
Largest Indonesia
AREA
Smallest State in Area (India) Goa
Smallest Union Territory Lakshadweep
Largest State in Area (India) Madhya Pradesh
Largest City in Area (World) London
ANIMAL
Tallest Animal Giraffe
Fastest Animal at short run Cheetah
Fastest Animal The Peregerine
Falcon
Largest existing Land animal Elephant
Most Intelligent Animal Chimpanzee
Most Cunning Animal Fox
Largest Sea Animal Blue Whale
BELL
Largest Bell (World) Greatest Bell of
Moscow (Russia)
BIRD
Largest Bird Ostrich
Largest Sea-bird Albatross
Fastest Bird Swift
Flightless Bird Swift
Smallest Bird Humming Bird
Singing Bird Nightingale
BRIDGE
Longest Railway Bridge (India) Sone Bridge (Bihar)
Longest Steel Arch Bridge New River Gorge
Bridge, 518.2 m long
(West Virginia, USA)
Longest combined Highway The Yangtse River
Bridge
and Railway Bridge 6,772 m rail deck and
4,589 road deck
(Nanking, China)
Longest Railway Bridge Huey P. Long Bridge,
7009 m (Metairie,
Louisiana, USA)
Highest Road Bridge Bailey Bridge built
by the Indian Army,
30 m long at an
altitude of 5600 m
( K h a r d u n g i a ,
Ladakh)
Highest River Bridge Royal Gorge, 321 m
above sea level on
the river Arkansas,
268 m long, Colorado.
Highest Railway Bridge Fades Bridge on river
Sioule 144 m long and
132.5 m above the
river. (Clermont
Ferrand, France)
BUILDING
Tallest Bank Building Bank of Montreal, 72,
Storeys, 284.98 m
high (Toronto,
Canada)
CANAL
Longest Canal (India) Saradha Canal (Uttar
Pradesh)
Longest Big Ship Canal (World) Suez Canal (Egypt)
160 km
Longest Small Ship Canal Beloye (White Sea)
Baltic Canal (CIS) 226
km long.
CAVE TEMPLE
Largest Cave Temple (India) Ellora (Maharashtra)
CHURCH
Largest Church (World) St. Peter’s Church,
Vatican City (Italy)
CITY
Highly Populated City (India) M u m b a i
(Maharashtra)
Oldest City (India) Kolkata
Higest City (World) Wenchuan (China)
5,100 metres above
sea level
Highest Capital Lhasa (3,684 metres
above sea level)
Largest City in Population (World) Shangai (China)
Costliest City (World) London
CLOCK
Biggest Clock (World) Big Ben (London)
CONTINENT
Largest Continent Asia
Smallest Continent Australia
CORRIDOR
Largest Corridor (World) Rameswaram Temple
COUNTRY
Largest in Population China followed by
India
Largest in Area Russia
Largest Electorate India
CREATURE
Largest Creature Blue Whale. It can
grow upto a weight
of 150 tonnes.
Highest – Biggest – Longest – Deepest – Largest – Smallest
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DAM
Longest Dam (India) Hirakud Dam on the
river Mahanadi –
Orissa
Highest Dam (World) The Grande
(Switzerland)
Highest Straight Bhakra Nangal on
river Sutlej
DAY
Longest Day June 21 (in Northern
Hemisphere)
Shortest Day December 22 (in
N o r t h e r n
Hemisphere)
DELTA
Largest Delta (Sunderbans). The
World’s largest delta
is that created by the
Ganges and Brahma
putra in Bangladesh
and West Bengal,
India. It covers an
area of 30,000 sq.
miles.
DESERT
Largest Desert (World) Sahara (Africa)
Coldest Desert Antarctica
Largest Desert (India) Thar Desert
(Rajasthan)
Largest Desert in Asia Gobi (Mongolia)
DOME
Largest and Biggest (India) Gol Gumbaz
Largest Dome (World) ‘Astrodome’ in
Housten, Texas
(USA) outside
diameter 216 metres
and inside 196
metres.
EPIC
Longest Epic Mahabharatha
FILLING STATION
Highest Filling Station Petrol pump at Leh at
3658 m. It is operated
by Indian Oil
Corporation.
FOREST
Largest Forest (India) Assam
GATEWAY
Highest Gateway (India) Buland Darwaza
GULF
Largest Gulf Gulf of Mexico
HARBOUR
Largest Natural Harbour (India) Visakhapatnam
HILL STATION
Highest Hill Station (India) Gulmarg (Kashmir)
HOTEL
Biggest Hotel (India) Oberoi-Sheraton
(Mumbai)
ISLAND
Largest Island Greenland
Largest Group of Islands Malaya Archipelago
LAKE
Largest Salt Water Lake Caspian Sea
Largest Fresh Water Lake Superior (31,200
sq.miles) (India)
Deepest Lake Lake Baikal (Siberia)
701 mts
Highest Lake Titicaca (Bolivia)
3854 metres above
sea level.
Largest Lake (India) Wular Lake
LIBRARY
Largest Library (World) United States Library
of Congress
(Washington)
The Lenin State
Library (Moscow-
Russia)
LIGHT HOUSE
Largest Light House (World) Bishop Rock
(England)
MEMORIAL
Most Beautiful Memorial Taj Mahal (Agra)
MINES
Largest Diamond Mines (World) Kimberley (South
Africa)
Deepest Mines (India) Kolar Gold Fields
(Karnataka)
MOUNTAINS
Longest Mountain Range (World) Mt. Andes (South
America) (8,800 km)
Highest Peak (World) Everest Nepal
Highest Peak (India) Godwin Austen
Highest Mountain Range Himalayas
Highest Peak (South India) Anaimudi (2,720 m)
Anaimalai
MOSQUE, CATHEDRAL, TEMPLE
Biggest Mosque (India) Jama Masjid (Delhi)
Largest Mosque Umayyad Mosque
157 m × 97 m
covering an area of
3.76 acres.
Damascus, Syria.
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Largest Cathedral Diocese of New York
11,240 sq.m.
Largest Temple Angkor Vat. 162.6 ha
area, built for Lord
Vishnu by Khmer
King Suryavarman-II
during 1113-50 A.D.
(Cambodia)
MUSEUM
Largest Museum (India) Indian Museum
(Kolkata)
Largest Museum (World) American Museum
of Natural History,
New York city. It
comprises 19 interconnected
buildings
with 23 acres of floor
space.
OCEAN
Deepest, Largest & Biggest The Pacific Ocean
PALACE
Biggest Palace (World) Vatican Palace, Rome
(Italy)
PENINSULA
Largest Peninsula (World) Arabia
PLACE
Hottest Place (India) Barmer (Rajasthan)
Hottest Place (World) Azizia (Libya) 58OC
Coldest Place (World) Ve r k h o y a n s k
(Siberia) –85O
Driest Place Death Valley
(California)
Heaviest Rain Fall (World) M a w s y n r a m
(Meghalaya)
PLATEAU
Highest Plateau Pamir (Tibet)
Largest Park Wood Buffalo
National Park
inAlberta, Canada
(17,560 Sq.miles)
PLANETS
Largest, Biggest & heaviest Jupiter
Planet
Smallest Planet Mercury
Brightest Planet Venus
Coldest Planet Pluto
Planet Farthest (from the Sun) Pluto
Planet Nearest (to the Sun) Mercury
Dustiest Planet Mars (Red Planet)
PLAY
The Longest Play The Mouse-Trap
(Agatha Christie’s
Novel)
POEM
Longest Poem of the World Mahabaratha
POPULATION
Largest Country in China
Population (World)
Largest State in Uttar Pradesh (India)
Population (India)
Densiest State in Population West Bengal (India)
Smallest State in Population Sikkim (India)
Smallest Union Territory Lakshadweep (India)
in Population
RAILWAYS
Longest Railway (World) T r a n – S i b e r i a n
Railway from
Moscow to
Nakhodka, 9438 km.
Longest Railway (Asia) India
Fastest Train (World) French T.G.V.
Longest Railway Station (India) Kharagpur (W.B.)
Longest Railway Platform Sonepur (Bihar)
(India)
Longest Railway Route Himsagar Express
RIVER
Longest River The Nile (Egypt)
Largest River in Volume Amazon (Brazil,
South America)
Largest River (India) The Ganges (6,679
km)
ROADS
Largest Road (India) Grand Trunk Road
Highest Road (World) Le Narba Road –
Ladhak
Longest Road P a n – A m e r i c a n
Highway 27387 km
(North West Alaska
to Southern most
Chile)
SCHOOL
Largest School South Point High
School, Kolkata,
India.
SEA
Largest Sea South China Sea
STATE
Smallest Independent Vatican (Italy)
State (World)
Biggest State (India) Madhya Pradesh
Smallest State (India) Goa
STADIUM
Largest Stadium Strahov Stadium. It
can accommodate
around 240,000
people in Prague,
Czech
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© THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
STATUE
Tallest Statue (World) Statue of Liberty,
New York
Tallest Statue (India) Statue of
“Panduranga Vittala”
(Karnataka State)
STAR
Biggest and Brightest ‘Sirius’ also called
Dog Star
STREET
Broadest Street (World) Broadway St. (USA)
SHIP
Greatest Ship (World) Queen Elizabeth
2,83,000 tons
TOWER
Highest Tower (World) 1. Tokyo Television
Tower (Japan)
2. Eiffel Tower
(Paris, France)
Highest Leaning Tower (World) Leaning Tower, Pisa
(Italy)
Highest Tower (India) Qutub Minar (Delhi)
88.4 m
TUNNEL
Largest Tunnel (India) Jawahar Tunnel
(Jammu & Kashmir)
Longest Rail Tunnel Bombay-Pune route
Longest Highway Tunnel Norway 24.5 km
(Laerdal Tunnel) (Oslo-Bergen)
UNIVERSITY
Oldest University University of
Karueein founded in
AD 859, Morocco
Largest University Building University of
Riyadh., Saudi
Arabia.
Largest Open University Indira Gandhi
National Open
University, New
Delhi.
VOLCANOES
Highest Volcano (World) Cotopoxi (Andes,
Eucador)
Largest Volcano (World) Mauna Lea (Hawai)
WALL
Longest Wall (World) Great Wall of China
2400 km
WATERFALLS
Highest Waterfall (World) Angel Waterfalls in
Venezuela, South
America
Highest Water fall (India) Gersoppa Waterfall
(Karnataka)
ZOO
Largest Zoo (India) Zoological Gardens,
Alipur, Calcutta
COUNTRIES AND CAPITALS
Afghanistan Kabul
Albania Tirana
Algeria Algiers
Angola Luanda
Andorra Andorre-la-Vieille
Antigua & Barbuda St.John’s
Argentina Buenos Aires
Armenia Yerevan
Australia Canberra
Austria Vienna
Azerbaijan Baku
Bahamas Nassau
Bahrain Manama
Bangladesh Dhaka
Barbados Bridgetown
Belgium Brussels
Belize Belmopan
Benin Porto Novo
Bermuda Hamilton
Bhutan Thimphu
Bolivia La Paz
Bosniaherzegovina Sarajevo
Botswana Gaborone
Brazil Brasillia
Brunei Bander Seri begawan
Bulgaria Sofia
Burkina faso Ouagadougou
Burundi Bujumbura
Byelorussia Minsk
Cambodia Phnom-Penh
Cameroon Yaounde
Canada Ottawa
Cape Verde Praia
Central African Republic Bangui
Chad N’ Djamena
Chile Santiago
China Beijing
Colombia Bogota
Comoros Moroni
Congo (Formerly French) Brazzaville
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© THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
Korea (North) Pyongyang
Korea (South) Seoul
Kuwait Kuwait City
Lao s.P.D.R. Vientiane
Latria Riga
Lebanon Beirut
Lesotho Maseru
Liberia Monrovia
Libya Tripoli
Lithuania Vilnius
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Macao Macao
Macedonia Skopje
Madagascar Antananarivo
Malawi Lilongwe
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Maldives Male
Mali Bamako
Malta Valletta
Mauritania Nouakchott
Mauritius Port Louis
Mexico Mexico City
Monaco Monaco
Mongolia Ulam Bator
Montserrat Plymouth
Morocco Rabat
Mozambique Maputo
Myanmar (Burma) Yangon
Namibia Windhoek
Nauru Yaren Nauru
Nepal Kathmandu
Netherlands Amsterdam
New Zealand Wellington
Nicaragua Managua
Niger Niamey
Nigeria Abuja
Northern Ireland Belfast
Norway Oslo
Oman Muscat
Pakistan Islamabad
Panama Panama City
Papua New Guinea Port Moresby
Paraguay Asuncion
Peru Lima
Philippines Manila (Quezon City)
Poland Warsaw
Portugal Lisbon
Puerto Rico San Juan
Qatar Doha
Rourkina Fasso (Upper Volta) Quagadougon
Romania Bucharest
Russia Mascow
Costa Rica San Jose
Coted’ ivoira Abidjan
Croatia Zagrab
Cuba Havana
Cyprus Nicosia
Czechoslovakia Prague (Praha)
Denmark Copenhagen
Djibouti Djibouti
Dominica Roseau
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo
Ecuador Quito
Egypt Cairo
El Salvador San Salvador
Equatorial Guinea Malabo
Eritrea Asmara
Estonia Tallinn
Ethiopia (or Abyssinia) Addis Ababa
Falkland Islands Stanley
Fiji Suva
Finland Helsinki
France Paris
Gabon Libreville
Gambia Banjul
Germany (United) Berlin
Georgia Tbilisi
Ghana Accra
Greece Athens
Grenada St.George’s
Guatemala Guatemala City
Guinea Conakry
Guinea-Bissau Bissau
Guyana Georgetown
Haiti Port-au-Prince
Honduras Tegucigalpa
Hong Kong Victoria
Hungary Budapest
Iceland Reykjavik
India New Delhi
Indonesia Jakarta
Iran Teheran
Iraq Baghdad
Ireland (or Eire) Dublin
Israel Jerusalem
Italy Rome
Ivory Coast Abidjan
Jamaica Kingston
Japan Tokyo
Jordan Amman
Kazakhstan Alma-ata
Kenya Nairobi
Kirghizia Frunze
Kiribati Tarawa
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© THE RAMAN’S BOOKS
Rwanda Kigali
San Marino San Marino
Sao Tome and Principle Sao Tome
Saudi Arabia Riyadh
Senegal Dakar
Seychelles Victoria
Sierra Leone Freetown
Singapore Singapore City
Solomon Islands Honiara
Somalia Magadishu
South Africa Pretoria
Spain Madrid
Sri Lanka Colombo
St.Kitts-Nevis Basseterre
St.Lucia Castries
St.Vincent & The Grenadines Kingstown
Sudan Khartoum
Suriname Paramaribo
Swaziland Mbabane
Sweden Stockholm
Switzerland Berne
Syria Damascus
Tadzhikistan Dushanbe
Taiwan Taipei
Tanzania Do doma
Thailand Bangkok
Timor Dili
Togo Lome
Tonga Nuku’alofa
Trinidad and Tobago Port-of-Spain
Tunisia Tunis
Turkey Ankara
Turkmenistan Ashkhabad
Tuvalu Funafuti
Uganda Kampala
Ukraine Kiev
United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi
United Kingdom London
U.S.A. Washington D.C.
Uruguay Montivideo
Uzbekistan Tashkent
Vanuatu Vila
Vatican City State Vatican City
Venezuela Caracas
Vietnam Hanoi
Western Samoa Apia
Yemen (North) Sania
Yugoslavia Belgrade
Zaire Kinshasa
Zambia Lusaka
Zimbabwe Harare
COUNTRIES AND CURRENCIES
Afganistan Afghani
Albania Lek
Algeria Dinar
Andorra French Franc,
Spanish Peseta
Angola New Kwanza
Antigua & Eastern Caribbean
Barbuda Dollar
Argentina Peso
Armenia Rubie
Australia Australian Dollar
Austria Schilling
Bahamas Bahamian Dollar
Bahrain Bahrain Dinar
Bangladesh Taka
Barbados Dollar
Belgium Franc
Brazil New Cruzado
Britain Pound
British Dollar
Honduras
Bulgaria Lev
Canada Dollar
Central African France CFA
Republic
Chile Peso
China (People’s) Yuan
Columbia Peso
Congo France CFA
Costa Rica Colone
Cuba Peso
Cyprus Cyprus Pound
Czechoslovakia Koruna
Denmark Krone
Ecuador Sucre
Egypt Pound
El Salvador Colon
Ethiopia Birr
Fiji Dollar
Finland Mark
France Franc
Gambia Dalasi
Germany Deutsche Mark
(United)
Ghana Cedi
Greece Drachma
Guatemala Quetzal
Guinea-Bissau Peso
Guyana Guyana Dollar
Haiti Gourde
Holland Florin
Honduras Lempira
Hong Kong Hong Kong Dollar
Hungary Forint
Iceland Krona
Ireland Irish Pound
India Rupee
Indonesia Rupiah
Iran Rial
Iraq Dinar
Israel New Shekel
Italy Lira
Ivory Coast Franc CFA
Jamaica Jamaican Pound
Japan Yen
Jordan Jordan Dinar
Kenya Kenyan Shilling
Korea Won
Kuwait Kuwait Dinar
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Abu, Mt. : (Rajasthan) hill station on the Aravalli Range;
sacred centre of Jain worshippers, Dilwara temples.
Abu Simbal : (Egypt) famous ancient temple cut-out of
rock by Rameses II.
Adam’s Bridge : Very nearly joined to India between
Mannar Pennsula and Danushkodi by a line of sand banks
and rocks called ‘Adam’s Bridge’.
Aga Khan Palace : In Pune where Mahatma Gandhi was
kept interned with his wife Kasturba Gandhi. Kasturba
died in this palace.
Ajantha Caves : Located near Aurangabad, famous for
wonderful Buddhist cave temples richly ornamented with
sculpture and carved with paintings.
Ajmer: (Rajasthan) Pilgrim centre for Muslims; tomb of
Khwaja Muin-ud-din chisti.
Alexandria : City and sea-port of Egypt founded by
Alexander the Great.
Allahabad : (Prayag) is a city in Uttar Pradesh situated at
the confulence of the Ganga and the Jamuna. Kumbha
Mela (religious fair of the Hindus) is held here once in
every 12 years.
Amarnath : Situated at a height of about 4054 metres in
Kashmir. It is a place of pilgrimage for the Hindus.
Amber Palace : Deserted capital near Jaipur (Rajasthan)
containing the finest specimens of Rajput architecture.
Amritsar : (Punjab) on the north-west border or India;
Golden Temple; Jallianwala Bagh tragedy on April 13, 1919.
Angkor Vat : A ruined city in Cambodia where beautiful
specimens of ancient Indian art and culture are found.
Athens : The International Olympic Committee (IOC) on
September 5, 1997, awarded the 2004 Summer Olympics
to Athens, the Greek capital which was the birth place of
the Games. Athens hosted the first modern Olympics in
1896 but lost out to Atlanta in 1996 Centennial Games.
Aurangabad : One of the important towns of Maharashtra
State; tomb of Emperor Aurangzeb and of his wife. Ellora
and Ajanta Caves are reached from here.
Auroville : It is an international township constructed in
Pondicherry with the help of UNESCO.
Avadi : Near Chennai in Tamil Nadu. Government owned
Heavy vehicles factory. ‘Vijayanta’ and ‘Ajit’ tanks are
manufactured here.
Badrinath : Himalayas; Place of pilgrimage for the Hindus
near Gangortri Glacier.
Baroda : Capital of the former Baroda State is known for
Laxmi Vilas Palace which is one of the most beautiful
palaces in India.
Laos Kip
Lebanon Pound
Liberia Liberian Dollar
Libya Libya Dinar
Luxembourg Luxembourg Franc
Madagascar Malagasy Franc
Malaysia Malaysian Dollar
Maldives Maldivian Rupee
(Rufiyaa)
Malta Lira Maltija
Mauritius Rupee
Mexico Peso
Monaco French Franc
Mongolia Tugrik
Morocco Dirham
Mozambique Metical
Myanmar Kyat
(Burma)
Nepal Nepalese Rupee
Netherlands Guilder
New Zealand New Zealand
Dollar
Nicaragua New Cordoba
Nigeria Naira
Norway Kroner
LANDMARKS
ARCHITECTURES, MONUMENTS, BUILDINGS, TOWNS AND PLACES
Oman Omani Rial
Pakistan Rupee
Panama Balboa
Papua Kina
New Guinea
Paraguay Guarani
Peru Inti Sol
Philippines Peso
Poland Zloty
Portugal Escudo
Qatar Qatari Riyal
Romania Leu
Russia Rouble
Salvador Colon
San Marino Italian Lira
Saudi Arabia Riyal
Singapore Singapore Dollar
Somalia Somali Shilling
South Africa Rand
Spain Peseta
Sri Lanka Rupee
Sudan Sudanese Pound
Sweden Krona
Switzerland Swiss Franc
Syria Syrian Pound Dinar
Tanzania Shilling
Thailand Baht
Togo France CFA
Tonga Pa’ Anga
Trinidad Trinidad Dollar
Tobago Tobago Dollar
Tunisia Dinar
Turkey Turkish Lira
United Arab Pound Dirham
Emirates Republic
Uganda Ugandan Shilling
U.K. Pound (Sterling)
Uruguay Nuero Peso
U.S.A. Dollar
Vatican City Lira
State
Venezuela Bolivar
Vietnam Dong
Yemen Rial
Yemen Arab Dinar
Republic Dinar
Yugoslavia
Zaire Zaire
Zambia Kwacha
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Dollar
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Belur Math : It is monastery near Calcutta in West Bengal
founded by Swami Vivekananda. A beautiful temple
dedicated to Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.
Bethlehem : Palestine; about 9 km South of Jeruselam;
birth-place of Jesus and Kind David; Church of Nativity.
Buckingham Palace : In London; residence of the Royal
family of England.
Buddha-Gaya : It is situated 10 km south of Gaya in Bihar
State on the river bank of Lilajan and famous as the place
where Buddha got enlightenment. There are modern
monasteries, rest houses and museum.
Calcutta : West Bengal Government re-christened
Calcutta as Kolkata with effect from January 1, 2001.
Siliguri has been renamed as Shilliguri.
Cape Comorin : also called Kanya Kumari in Tamil Nadu,
where Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal meet the Indian
Ocean. It gives a beautiful view of sun-set and sun-rise.
Chennai : Capital of Tamil Nadu is the third largest city in
India. Known for Fort St.George, Light House, St.Thomas
Mount, Integral Coach Factory, Adyar (the headquarters
of the Theosophical Society).
Chidambaram : Famous for its great Hindu Siva temple,
dedicated to Nataraja or Siva in his aspect of ‘Cosmic
dance’. Annamalai University is located here.
Chittorgarh : Ancient capital and fortress of Udaipur;
known for Tower of Victory and Mira Bai’s Temple.
Dakshineswar : 8 Kns from Calcutta where Vivekananda
was initiated into religious life by Sri Ramakrishna
Paramahamsa.
Dandi : famous for Salt Satyagraha (Dandi March) by
Mahatma Gandhi in 1930.
Digboi : (Assam) is known for rich oil-fields.
Dilwara Temples : near Mount Abu (Rajasthan) are five
Hindu Temples constructed here between 11th and 13th
century A.D.
Downing Street : No.10 Downing Street is the official
residence of the Prime Minister of England in London.
Durand Line : the line demarcating the limits of neutral
territory between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Eagle’s Nest : Name given to the historic fort at Raigarh
in Kolaba district of Maharashtra where 300 years ago,
Chatrapati Shivaji, the great warrior-statesman, was
crowned.
Eiffel Tower : In Paris (France) 300 m high and built at a
cost of 200,000 pounds. It is now being used as a
Meteorological Wireless Station.
Elephanta : an Island in Mumbai harbour – famous for
rock-cut temples.
Ellor and Ajantha : famous for wonderful Buddhist cave
temples richly ornamented with sulpture and carved with
paintings.
Empire State Building : (U.S.A.) is one of the loftiest
buildings in the world; height about 365 metres; it has
102 storeys.
Ernakulam : in Kerala State is famous for its backwaters.
Fatehpur Sikri : 32 km from Agra; city built by Emperor
Akbar in 1569, now deserted.
Fleet Street : A street in London running from Temple
far east wards to Ludgate Circus. The area (with adjoining
streets) houses the offices, and printing establishments
of many of the leading British newspapers and press
agencies.
Gateway of India : in Mumbai harbour erected in 1911 on
George V’s visit to India.
Gaya : (Bihar) the place where Lord Buddha got
enlightenment; famous for pilgrimage.
Gibraltar : British fortress and naval base on west end
of the Mediterranean (extreme south of Spain) key to the
Mediterranean.
Golden Temple : in Amritsar (Punjab), sacred to the Sikhs.
Gol Gumbaz : largest Dome in Bijapur (Karnataka).
Gomateswara : (Karnataka) famous for the 2000 year old
statue of Jain Sage carved out of a single stone.
Great Wall of China : 2400 km long wall; its construction
was started by Chinese King Emperor Shih Hwang.
Gwalior : in Madhhya Pradesh famous for its Fort,
Tansen’s Tomb, Rani Laxmi Bai’s Chhatri.
Hague, The : (The Netherlands) Seat of International
Court of Justice; Art galleries.
Hampi : site ruins of Vijayanagar – ancient capital of
Vijayanagar empire. It is in Karnataka.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon : one of the Seven Wonders
of the World; planted near the Euphrates in 603 B.C.
Hiroshima : in Central Honshu (Japan) close to the
‘Island of Light’ with the famous Shinto temples; first
city destroyed by atom bomb in the Second World War.
Howrah Bridge : a cantilever span bridge constructed
over the river Hooghly connecting Howrah Railway
Station with Kolkata.
Hyderabad-Secunderabad : Twin city-capital of Andhra
Pradesh.It stands on the river Musi, known for Charminar,
Osmania University, Salarjung Museum – one of the
richest and most varied collections in Asia.
India Gate : A memorial in New Delhi facing the
Rashtrapati Bhavan.
Jaipur : capital of Rajasthan is famous for pottery,
brassware, sculpture, ivory and sandalwood work and
jewellery. Famous for Maharaja’s palace; Jai Singh’s
observatory. Amber (ancient capital) Hawa Mahal.
Jallianwala Bagh : a garden in Amritsar; scene of
massacre of innocent Indians by the British on 13th
April 1919.
Jama Masjid : (Delhi) built by Shah Jehan, India’s biggest
mosque.
Jamshedpur : (Bihar) centre of iron and steeel industry;
Tata Iron and Steel Factory is located here.
Jantar Mantar : in Delhi, is an Observatory constructed
in 1724 during the days of Maharaja Jai Singh II of Amber.
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Jerusalem : ancient city and capital of Palestine known
as ‘Holy City’. Christ was crucified here.
Jog Falls : also called Gersoppa Falls in Karnataka are
one of the highest warerfalls in the world. These falls are
formed by the river Sharasvati which takes a big leap
down a steep rock from a height of 253 metres.
Juma Masjid, Mandu : is in Madhya Pradesh; it depicts a
synthesis of Hindu and Muslim styles in architecture.
Kailasha Temple : rock-cut temple in Ellora caves.
Kalpakkam : near Chennai in Tamil Nadu is known for
Chennai Atomic Power Project (MAPP).
Kanchi or Kancheepuram : Near Chennai was the ancient
capital of ancient Pallavas; famous for ancient temples.
Kandahar : This is a town in Afghanistan where Pakistan
backed 5 terrorists and forced the hijacked Indian Airlines
plane IC 814 with 155 passengers and crew aboard to
land at Kandahar Airport on December 25, 1999, keeping
them hostage for seven days.
Kanya Kumari : in Tamil Nadu, famous temple (the Virgin
Goddess) situated at Cape Comorin on the extreme
southern tip of India where the Bay of Bengal, Arabian
Sea, and the Indian Ocean meet; a picturesque spot.
Vivekananda Rock Memorial Buddha.
Kapilavastu : small kingdomin the north of India;
associated with Mahatma Buddha.
Kaziranga : is a Game Sanctuary in Assam. It is the centre
of the great Indian one-horned rhinos.
Khajuraho : in Madhya Pradesh famous for the group of
highly ornate medieval Hindu temples.
Kodaikanal : is a town in Tamil Nadu famous for its
Observatory for the study of Solar Physics.
Konarak : small town 16 km north of Puri (Orissa) famous
for its Black Pagods; Sun Temple.
Kovalam : is a sea-beach about 16 km from Trivandrum in
Kerala. Developed as a Tourist Resort by India Tourism
Corporation.
Kremlin : Large fortified citadel in Moscow, now the
headquarters of Russia. The Kremlin, originally built in
1156 by Yuri, (George) Dolgoruki, price of Suzdal became
the centre around which Moscow has grown.
Qutub Minar : in Delhi (88.4 m high) is one of the master
– pieces of Indian architecture and art. It is the biggest
minaret in the world. Completed by Altamash in 1232 A.D.
Leaning Tower : (Pisa, Italy) 55 metres high.
Lumbini : birth place of Buddha. It is in Nepal. The
Nepalese Government have plans to develop the place
with the U.N. assistance as an Internatinal Tourist Resort.
Madurai : in Tamil Nadu, famous for Meenakshi Temple,
dedicated to Lord Siva.
Mahabalipuram : in Tamil Nadu on the Eastern Ghats,
famous for temples and monumental architectures. An
atomic power station is being set up near here at
Kalpakkam.
Mathura : a holy city in Uttar Pradesh; Birth-place of
Lord Krishna, Hindu temples; oil refinery.
Mecca : the holiest cityof the Mohammedan world in
Arabia, where the Prophet was born. It stands in the
desert. It is a place of pilgrimage and Muslims from all
parts of the world visit the place it for Haj in every year.
Mount Blanc : highest mountain peak in Europe. It is in
the Alps on the confines of Italy and France, longest
road tunnel in the world.
Munich : (West Germany) scene of Munich pact; art
galleries; The 20th Olympic Games (1972) were held here.
Nilgiris : mountain range in Tamil Nadu, tea
plantations.
Panna : in M.P. Panna district is known for diamond mines.
Panna town has several buildings of historical interest
including Shri Baldeoji temple.
Pearl Harbour : in Hawaii Island (USA) Naval Base;
scene of Japanese attack in World War II.
Pentagon : in Washington. It houses many Government
offices of the War Department of the USA.
Petronas Twin Towers : Located in Kuala Lumpur with
88 storeys high, these are the tallest buildings in the
World.
Philadelphia : (USA) place where Americans framed
their Constitution and declared their Independence
son 4th July, 1776.
Plassey : a village on the Ganges (West Bengal) Battle
of Plassey was fought here in 1757 in which Clive
defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah and laid the foundation of
British Rule in India.
Pokhran : The Nuclear test site in Rajasthan, 600 kms
from Jaipur. The first nuclear test was conduted on May
18, 1974 and five on May 11 and 13 1998.
Pondicherry : formerly a French possession, since
taken by the India Govenement and now specified as
a Union Territory. Aurobindo Ashram is established
here. ‘Auroville’, an international township inmemory
of Sri Aurobindo has been built here.
Pyramids of Egypt : are vast stone or brick-built
structures on west bank of the Nile. They date back to
about 300 B.C. The largest is called the Great Pyramid
which is 146 metres high and is one of the Seven
Wonders of the World. Three lakh men were employed
for 20 years to build it. These Pyramids have inner
chambers and subterranean entrances built by
pharaohs as oval tombs.
Raj Ghat : On the bank of Jamuna in Delhi, Samadhi of
Mahatma Gandhi.
Rashtrapati Bhavan : official residence of the President
of India in New Delhi; known as Viceragal Lodge during
British reign.
Red Fort : Red-stone Fort built by Shah Jehan in Delhi
near the Jamuna.
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Red Square : It is a famous open space in Moscow
linked with the Kremlin by three gates used for
political demonstrations and processions. Lenin’s
mausoleum is in the Red Square.
Rome : capital of Italy; on the River Tiber; one of the
most famous cities of the world also known as
Eternal City.
Sabarmati : in Gujarat State near Ahmedabad; Harijan
Ashram founded by Mahatma Gandhi.
Sarnath : situated 8 km outside Varanasi. Saranath is the
famous place of Buddhist pilgrimage in India. In the ‘Deer
Park’ of Sarnath, Gautama Buddha preached his First
Semon. Also located here is the famous Ashoka Pillar of
polished sand-stone whose lion capital was adopted by
the new Republic of India as the State Emblem.
Scotland Yard : the Metropoliton Police Headquarters in
London from which the force is administered CID
headquarters.
Seringapatnam : Seringapatnam was the capital of
Karnataka during the rule of Tipu Sultan. The fourth and
the last Mysore war was fought here. Tipu Sultan died
here fighting bravely against the British forces.
Sriharikota : in the Nellore district on the Andhra coast
is India’s Satellite Launching Centre. The Sriharikota
Range (SHAR) comprises the Sriharikota Launch
Complex, Rocket Shed Facility, Static Test and Evaluation
Complex, Solid Propellant Space Booster Plant and
Sriharikota Common Facilities.
Suez Canal : Ship canal (Egypt) it connects the
Mediterranean (Port Said) with the Red Sea (Suez).
Sunderbands : is a tract of forests and swamps – 264 km
long and 129 km wide fringing the delta of the Ganges.
Taj Mahal : the white marble mausoleum built at Agra by
Shah Jehan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.
Tanjore : (Tamil Nadu) famous for museum, temples and
library. Brihadeeswara temple.
Taxila : in West Pakistan; site of excavation, old seat of
Buddhist culture and famous for ancient Taxila University.
Tel Aviv : magnificent city in Palestine built by the Jews;
capital of Israel.
Thumba : near Trivandrum in Kerala State is known as
rocket launching station.
Tirupati : in Andhra State about 160 km to the northwest
of Chennai is one of the holiest places in South
India. This hill temple of Sri Venkateshwara is an example
of early Dravidian architecture and is one of the finest in
the south.
Trafalgar : Cape Trafalgar is famous for the naval
battle fought between the British led by Admiral
Nelson and an allied naval force of France and Spain in
1805. Admiral Nelson won the battle though he was
himself killed in action.
Triveni : in Allahabad (UP) Confluence of the Ganges,
the Jamuna and the mythical Saraswati; a place of
pilgrimage for the Hindus.
Varanasi : or Banares is a town in UP very sacred to the
Hindus. It is known as the religious capital of Hindu India.
Famous for Banares Hindu University, Vishwanath
Temple, Manmandir with Jaisingh’s Observatory,
Ramnagar Fort etc.,
Vatican : the Papal State of Italy; an independent
territory; the palace of Pope in Rome. It includes the
Church of St. Peter.
Victoria Falls : on the River Zambesi, Zambia-Central
Africa. These Falls, the greatest in the world are 1700
metres wide.
Victoria Memorial : a magnificent building in
Calcutta having an art gallery and a well-laid out garden
attached to it.
Vijay Ghat : On the banks of the Yamuna in Delhi is
Samadhi of Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, former Prime
Minister of India.
Visakhapatnam : big harbour on the eastern coast of
India; ship building yard.
Viswa Shanti Stupa : (World Peace Pagoda) 45 m high
stupa raised a top, the picturesque Ratnagiri hill, it is the
first stupa of its kind in India.
Vivekananda Rock : is situated near Kanyakumari at the
southern tip of India’s coastline. It has been so named in
memory of Swami Vivekananda.
Wagah Border : This is a border between India and
Pakistan. Indian Prime Minister Mr. Atal Behari
Vajpayee crossed the border to enter Pakistan by bus
as part of his peace initiative with India’s neighbour on
February 20, 1999.
Wall Street : a street in New York, centre of US Banking
and Finance.
Wardha : (Maharashtra State) Mahatma Gandhi lived here
for several years; centre of cotton trade.
Waterloo : Belgium; famous for the battle of Waterloo
which marked the end of Napoleon’s power.
Wellington : in the Nilgiris hills (Tamil Nadu) is known
for Defence Services Staff College.
White Hall : London, Government Offices.
White House : is the Official Residence of the President
of the USA. It is located at 600. Pennsylvania Avenue
in Washington D.C.
Wimbledon : in London, famous for Lawn Tennis Court.
Yellow Sea : Sea between northern China and Korea.
Zambesi : River in South East Africa. It flows east to
Mozambique Channel, Indian Ocean.
Zojila : a pass in the way from Srinagar (Kashmir) to Leh
and then to Yerkand in Tibet.
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INDIA – AT A GLANCE
India lies at the north of the equator between
8° 4′ and 37° 6′ north latitude and 68° 7′ and 97°
25′ east longitude.

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