DEVELOPMENT of Dalits and Adiviasis
Dalits, Adiviasis, sections of unprotected
working class including farmers
The Dalits, Adiviasis, sections of unprotected working class including farmers and fish-workers are the ones who produce, distribute, build, operate, clean, sell, drive and do all that enable society to survive, proceed and progress. But the tragedy is that they have to battle for their own survival. And that is what they do, through nonviolent means, against a state that plots to evict them, rob them of their meagre resources, transfer the capital in their hands to corporates in the name of development and then compel them to beg for rehabilitation. Asserting their right to resources and to make their own plans to develop those resources, they are also questioning a development model that is undemocratic, inequitable and unjust.
They are at Jantar Mantar to agitate against the upcoming ‘Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill’. They want to convey the message that it is time to review that money and labour, two of the three capital resources for any ‘development’ project (a dam, industry, intrastructure, etc.) can’t be taken by force, how can any statutory agency forcibly acquire the third resource — land?
The recent report of the all-party committve on the Bill appreciates the issues and reservations raised by many of us: no forcible acquisition for private or PPP projects; no acquisition of agri cultural land — one crop or multiple crop; and bringing under the purview of this Act, all Central Acts used for land acquisition in sectors such as mining, highways, railways, ports, etc. It also recognises the role of the Gram Sabha and Basti Sabha, in deciding public purpose to planning the project, deciding the R&R and then monitoring it. This is nothing new, but reiterates the framework provided through Article 243 (73rd and 74th Amendment) of the Constitution, incorporated in 1992-93. If the land allotted to any industry/ project is not used for five years, it can go back to the landowner, the report recommends..
Unfortunately, the Ministry of Rural Development is not agreeable to many of these reasonable proposals. Only multiple-crop land can be excluded, it says. How is this possible if, for instance, a single-crop plot is sandwiched between two multiple crop ones? Today’s non-irrigated land can be tomorrow’s irrigated one. Rural development should have agriculturists as the prime beneficiaries, not the corporates. The latter are pushing state acquisition through the Ministry of Rural Development for their own benefit. Why should the MoRD or the government bow before them? The answer lies in the politician-bureaucratcorporate nexus.Because the public purpose itself is defined by the Ministry of Rural Development in a manner worse than in the British Act.
Ministry of Rural Development in a manner worse than in the British Act.
The weakest part endorsed by both the committee and the, MoRD is, however, rehabilitation. The number of displaced/affected people since Independence is anywhere between eight and 12 crore (the number is never final as many categories are left out, such as canal-affected persons in dam constructions, and where the government has no comprehensive record). lip to 86 per cent of this number has been left pauper for generations. Whether it is Bhakra Nangal or victims qf industrial development, each State has lakhs of families waiting to be rehabilitated, and still in struggle mode.
The only progressive rehabilitation policy in Sardar Sarovar dam-Narmada Project could be brought about only through a continuous struggle over the past 27 years by the Narmada Bachao Andolan. Why can’t the same provisions become part of the new Act. The answer is: no political will. Only cash — four to six times the market value, as in the Haryana, Gurgaon or U.P. models — is not rehabilitation. It has failed to ensure livelihood.
In short, the Opportunity to democratise and decentralise planning to minimise diversion of land and destruction of agriculture, and to stop uprooting people must be viewed with all seriousness.
dalits Adivasis Agitate against the LARR Bill
|Gloomy Picture of Adivasi Education : A study conducted by the National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, and backed by the UNICEF revealed that the adivasis in India receive the “lowest-cost, poorest-quality and indifferently administered education”.Finer points of the Report: Not only are the Adivasis marginalised, even affirmative action/reservation programmes for Adivasis (as Scheduled Tribes) in higher educational institutions have not had the desired effect. Mainstream education has failed to recognise the aspirations, needs and predicament of Adivasis. The Naxal violence has made it worse, leading to “widespread destruction of Adivasi homes, livelihoods and larger support structure, including healthcare, schools and spaces for civic action”. The report uses the term Adivasi for groups identified as ‘tribals, ‘scheduled tribes’ and ‘denotified tribes’ across India. There are than 600 Adivasiltribat cornmunities in India and most of them are among the most disadvantaged social groups. Indigenous adivasi culture, knowledge forms and language find no place in the dominant education system. Inadequate educational infrastructure in tribl dominated states and even if the infrastructure exist it is inaccessible as they are established far from the tribes’ habitation. The report cites the example of tribal-dominated Chhattisgarh where a significant proportion of the schools are by the roadside Or highways, though most tribals live in forests and hilly tracts.. Submitted to UNICEF, the report is a broad perspective on Adivasi education in India noting the “systemic– marginalisation and `invisibilisation” of adivasi interests across political, policy and administrative levels.Farmers To Get Online Advice On Fertilizer Use : Farmers can now get online information on the amount of fetters that they must apply to a particular kind of so:I and crop. This will help them overcome the problem of over-use of fertilizer that is eroding soil health. The Bhopal-basc-d Indian Insttut-e of Soil Science has developed a web-based system that calculates the quantum and quality of fertilizers that should be applied to the sci ler targeted y’Rld. As of now, 11 States Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal — can avail themselves of the system. The soil testing laboratories in thee States have shared data on the types of soils that are availabke. The software takes into account the soil type in different districts of the country and available nutrients in the soil. It takes into consideration the crop and copping season In calculating the nutrient requiren lent. In some cases, it even takes care of different available varieties of main crops. Finally the system converts the nutrient data into specific quantities that should be used by the farmer. In the Soil Test Crop Response-based Fertiliser Recommendation System, a per`,Xri has to key in data about soil type, crop, season, district, crop variety and area to get the quantum of fertilizer that is to be used.|