Climate of India
Climate of India may be broadly described as Tropical monsoon type. There are four seasons : (i)
winter ( Jan. – Feb.), (ii) hot weather summer (March -May); (iii) rainy south- western monsoon
(June-September); and (iv) post-monsoon, (or) north-east monsoon in the southern Peninsula
(October -December). North-East monsoons are referred to as winter monsoons blows from land to
sea whereas South- west monsoons are summer monsoons blows from sea to land. South-west
monsoons brings most of the rainfall in the country.
A few Rivers in the Rajasthan area do not drain into the sea. They drain into salt lakes and get lost
in sand with no outlet to sea. They are Luni, Machhu, Rupen, Saraswati, Banas, Ghaggar and
The entire country has been divided into twenty river basins/groups of river basins comprising 12
major basins and eight composite river basins. The 12 major river are (1) Indus, (2)
Ganga- BrahmaputraMeghna, (3) Godavari, (4) Krishna, (5)
R e gi on al D i vi si on of th e Hi ma la ya s fr om N or t h – We s t t o E a st
1 Kashmir/Punjab about 560 km. b/w Indus &
2. Kumaon Himalayas about 320 km. b/w Sutlej & Kali
3. Nepal Himalayas about 800 km. b/w Kali & Tista
4 Assam Himalayas about 720 km. b/w Tista & Brahmaputra The total length of the Himalayas,
stretching from Kashmir in the North – west to Assam in the east, in the form of an arc, along the
northern boundary of the IndoGangetic – Brahmaputra plains, is of 2500 km.
Floristic Region Location
• lies along the foot of Siwalik & runs parallel to it.
Western Himalayan from Kashmir to
1. Temperate Zone – Chir, Pine, Deodar Bluepine, Spruce, Silver fir
2. Alpine Zone – Siiveriir, Sliver birch. Junipers
1. Temperate Zone – )aks, Laurels,
maples, rhoticidendrons, aldef. Bird;,
Conifers, Junipers & dwarf willows Bamboos and Tali grasses
• 7 – i5 km wide
• Comprise of Pebble-finer alluvium.
Eastern Himalayan Region
Assam region Indus Plain region
Kiirseong’ Brahmaputra & Surma valleys ‘
Punjab W. Raiastan & N G.
plain area of Ganga
Excessively humid belt of mountain country parallel to the west coast of tie oenirsJia
Andaman & Nicobar Evergreen, mangrove, beach and diluvial
Underground stream of the Bhabar reemerge on the (.1s-appear and flow underground.
Ganga Plain Region
not much suitable for agriculture.
various kings from Scrub iungles to mixed deciduous forests Forest vegetation & commerciai
coconut, betelnut, pepper, coffee.
tea, rubber, cashew nut
Cuitivation of Wheat, Sugarcane, Rice
lies south of Bhabar & runs parallel to it.
20 – 30 km. wide
Composed of comp-aratively finer alluvium.
Underground stream of the Bhabar re emerge on the surface and give birth to marshy areas.
Most part of the terai area are reclaimed for agriculture.
The water flowing
below the surface of Bhabhar comes out.
it is low level plain where the water cf river spread over it and make it swampy land. It is a malaria affected area.
- The Western Coastal Plains is a thin strip of coastal plain 50 kilometres (31 mi) in width between the west coast of
- India and the Western Ghats hills which starts near the south of river Tapi. They are sandwiched between the Western
- Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The plains begin at Gujarat in the north and end at Kerala in the south, It also includes the
- states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. It consists of three sections. The Northern part of the coast is called the
- Konkan while the southern stretch is referred to as the Malabar Coast. On its northern side there are two gulfs: the gulf
- of Khambat and the gulf of Kachch.
- The Eastern Coastal Plains refer to a wide stretch of landmass of India, lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of
- Bengal. It stretches from Tamil Nadu in the s outh to West Bengal in the north. Deltas of many of India’s rivers form a major
- portion of these plains. The Mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri and Krishna rivers drain these plains. The region receives both the
- Northeast and Southwest monsoon rains with its annual rainfall averaging between 1,000 mm and 3,000 mm. The width of the
- plains varies between 100 to 130 km. It is locally known as Northern Circars between Mahanadi and Krishna rivers and Carnatic
- between Krishna and Kaveri rivers.
- L ongit u dina l Divis ion of t he Hima la yas
- A) T he Great er Hi mal ayas (al so know n as Inner Himalayas) Average elevation about 6000 m
- A v e r a g e w i d t h – b e t w e e n 1 2 0 k m t o 1 9 0 k m
- T here a re s ha rp s ynt a xi al bends at t hei r w es t ern and east ern ends.
- Important peaks Mt. Everest, Kanchenjuncia, Dhaulagiri,
- Nanda Devi, Nanga Parbat, Cho Ova, Makalu and Manalsu.
- A) The Les ser Himalayas (also known as Middle Himalayas) Ave rage ei evat i o n 3 7 0 0 m t o 4 5 0 0 m
- A v e r a g e w i d t h 5 0 km
- They are parallel to Great Himalayan. Some spurs extends into Outer Himalayas (Siwaliks). This zone has
- many famous health resorts and nil! stations (Shirnia: Ranikhet, Mussoorie, Nainital, Darjeeling etc.)
- Important peaks Dhaula Dhar, Pir Panjal, Nag Tibba,
- Mahagbharat range and Mussoorie range.
- A) The Outer Himalayas (also known as Siwalik Range). Average elevation 1000 m to 1500 m
- Average width 10 km t o 5 0 km
- There is a chain of low lying hills. The region is not well drained (e.g. the Terai).
- A) T h e T r a n s – H i m al a y a s (a ls o kno wn as Ti b etan Hi mal a ya s ). A ver a g e wi dt h – a t t h e e xt r e mi t i es :
- a b o ut 4 0 k m
- – in the Central Part about 220 km This zone merges into the Pamir Knot in the West. The
- ranges comprising of Karakoram and Kailash, overlook the sacred Manasarovar Lake. The Karakoram
- range is also known as the ‘Backbone of High Asia”. This range forms the watershed between Central Asia
- and South Asia.
- Important peaks : K 2 (Godwin Austen), Halden Peak, Broad Peak, Gasherbrum, Rakaposhi, Haramosh.
- The valley of Hunza River is a pass to Central Asia. Also there is pass between Leh and Yarkand (at an
- altitude of 5600 m.)
It runs parallel to the Wes tern coast in a N – S direction from Tapi river to Kanya – kurnari
Average elevation 900 – 1600 m
A verage width
50 to 80 km
Stands like a continu – ous wall and can be crossed through passes only
It has structural unity
Source of many large rivers from it
Almost perDenclicuar to the monsoon and therefore causes rainfall in the west coastal plain